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Lecture 6

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 6 - 02-11-13 the stuff for midterm should probably be up to this point (and including this lecture), everything else is after, official midterm date TBA Working Memory Outline: The Modal Model Working Memory Entering Long term storage elaborate encoding organizing and memorizing links among acquisition, storage, and retrieval One way to frame learning and memory acquisition storage retrieval analogy to creating, storing and opening a computer file answers questions of how to improve study and improving memory The Modal Model STM LTM Information Processing There's incoming information (you seen something whether visual or audio), sensory information is the processing of the sensory (the actual visual that comes in) and then enters STM (analogy of loading dock; e.g. rehearsing something, you can put that into the LTM). STM is deemed very volatile (7+/-2 items of chunking). This overtime has become a little bit more complex and updated as well. WM - a dynamic form of STM. As time progressed, the idea of STM sort of been put by the wayside because WM is a better description or indicator of what's going on. WM describes the actual activity that's going on in memory. Rather than the loading dock (memory holding something), it's now there and you can pull it back out into STM and use it there. The idea of WM now, we still think of as a similar idea of its where you have the limits (still volatile). Rather than a place in the brain, it's an activity, becomes a more dynamic activity that you do when you're thinking about something. If working memory were a capacity of a computer, what component might it correspond to and why? WM: the memory system responsible for the ST mental storage and manipulation of information. Analogy: in a computer, there are two means by which information is stored: Hard Drives RAM: very limited and volatile, i.e. phones, slows them down, same thing with video games and computer systems. Which of these two is most like LTM? WM? Experiments supporting the modal model presented long series of words (e.g. 30) free recall afterward look at the position in the list (serial recall) much more accurate with first few and last few The curve shows that the accuracy of the words recalled, 40 something % first few, 80% last few Primacy effect better memory for first few items LTM memory rehearsal Recency effect better memory for the last few items based on WM last few words are still in WM, easy to recall. They're still in that RAM storage. If you had some type of rehearsal going on in your head, the first word gets the most rehearsal. That rehearsal is moving that word from WM to LTM. The first few set of words are being shoved to LTM. Last few are remaining in the WM at the moment in the test. Graph here shows recall, red line is showing immediate recall right after the list. There's a good amount of recall for the last few sets of words. Unfilled delay, people can continue to rehearse it. If you ask someone to do something else that involves the working memory, they can no longer recall the last few set of words. 30 seconds not enough to wipe out recency another task is needed to do so People tend to talk about studying and the best methodologies. The point is to take breaks at a frequency that will increase your primacy and recency effects. If you jump into something else, and haven't rehearsed, high chances you lose the information. You can think about the stuff you just read as you begin your break. That strategy allows you to retain more information on an initial read instead of sitting there for 2 hours and read. That's why cramming doesn't work. It's not problems with understanding but with encoding and retrieving. This strategy creates stronger connections. Slow presentation aids pre-recency items It gets less rehearsal as time goes on. But it's shown that if you delay presentation time, the early items are a little bit better as opposed to not having slow presentation. But it actually lasts a bit longer. That implies that people are better at recalling the first set of words with the idea that they're able to move this into the LTM. Recency effect the same Memory for the rest of the list is better Primacy associated with hippocampus Associated more with LTM Working memory associated with perirhinal cortex Words that are recalled near the end for the most recent words, associated with perirhinal cortex WM virtually all mental activities require WM reading goal driven behaviour some tasks demand more WM resources than others individual differences in WM capacity predict some cognitive abilities Digit span task participant asked to remember digits list increased until memory fails maximum number is the digit span Chunking the ability to condense information requires effort reduces load does not increase WM e.g. HOP TRA SLU, splitting this up into syllables. It only takes up 3 spaces. If HOPTRA was a word, that only takes up one space. You can increase what appears to be a limited set of WM, increasing it to a higher level. WM one metaphor for WM is a loading dock mechanically transfers input to and from LTM a better metaphor is a librarian actively categorizes, catalogs, and cross references new materials The computer analogy isn't a great analogy. While memory is being encoded, there's all these other things related to it that gets stored into some type of memory that are influenced by past experiences and the experiences you have at the moment. Then you have a bunch of other activities or events through your life and as soon as you want to recall, your WM pulls all that information; and all the other events, while it's being rebuilt, all those other events and activities you went through have been organized to include that information. Reading Span Digit span is very static. Reading span is more of a measure that captures the active nature of WM. This is more along the lines of how we think WM is like now. You read a series of sentences and have to remember the last few words of the sentence. Operation span. The reason we move to this is because now it's no longer the word
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