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Lecture 7

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Winter

Description
th Test 2 – March 18 Final exam – april 12 th 35 practice questions on the blackboard covers chapter 7-13 Human development- Part 1 Personality – Part 2 Human development – developmental psychology – developmental changes that occur as human age – majority of developmental psychologist do work with kids but it can involve the study of social and biological factors in utera(prenatal factors) to everything when you age (old age) – not limited to just kids Present at birth – come into the world with these five sense even though may not be developed to the same extent – sight- fairly limited at birth – limited to 20-30 cm away – why beneficial to only see that far away? – Because that's the distance you are away from mother when she is feeding you – smell- smell perfectly well – sound- hear perfectly well – taste- infants prefer sweet things- evolutionary advantages (e.g. milk is sweet so they should enjoy it) – touch- – all of it focuses on getting food – being by the person who gives you food – Reflexes – grasping fingers – primate ancestory should be able to cling to mom to move around and survive – rooting- if you put anything near it's cheek it will instant turn that way and open its mouth - to see if it is food – sucking – baby will suck anything you put intheir mouth to see if they can get milk out of it- evolutionary response Attachment bond to primary care giver(usually mom)? – lasting unconditional bond that persists overtime – Adaptive- wants to become attached to a person that will protect it at all cost – Oxytocin- has to do with attachment – cuddling hormone – also released during sexual responses not just maternal – Imprinting – critical vs. sensitive periods – Attachement tends to occur pretty early on- critical or sensitive periods? – critical – set in stone – if this doesn't occur in a specific period it will never occur – attachment must occur between this and this age or it will never occur – or learning to speak must occur before age 7, e.g. or will never be able to occur – sensitive – iin most cases it's sensitive period – it's easier to pick up some behaviour at a particular time frame – but not absolutely necessary to learn then – e.g. easier to learn a language the younger we are- but doesn't mean we are incapable to learn it when you are an adult- just not easy – imprinting in terms of attachment is refering to animals- conrad lawrence – talked about bond occuring between baby ducks and their mother – during the first 18 hours of life (critical period) – they will attach to an adult (generally the mother in nature/ or same species) in that environment and imprint- follow them aroudn for the rest of their life- need to do to survive – if mother is not there -they will follow other adult around including a human – in the first 18 hours they imprint – and stop following eventually when they don't need to Harlow – attachment in monkeys – attachment to caregivers – necessary for survival – is this attachment bond just for milk? Or for comfort (everything else)?**does protection fall under comfort? – Wire mom = the one with milk – the brown wire mom on the other side – doesn't provide food but comfy cloth you can cling to – which bond would it cling to in a moment of crisis? VIDEO – scared the monkey- he clings on to the cloth mom – turns out it would only go to wire mom when it needed food – it really didn't like the wire mom – it's not just mom provides food – mom provides physical comfort – touch is super powerful – comfort is just as imortant as basic survival needs Strange-situation test – most babies start crawling when 8-12 months of age – seperation anxiety happens- they try to cling to primary care givers when they try to leave them- they will even start crying especially if a stranger in the room or if infant left in a random place – Catagories – Secure attachment – they get upset when caregiver leaves- – but when mom/dad return – they are happy again – they will return to exploring the room or cling to them – get upset but easily comforted – calms down when mother returns – and then goes back to looking ath the environment – Next two situations- insecure attachment – they both want her back but don't know how to reacgt – avoidance attacment – didn't care when caregiver leaves- sometimes they do care – avoided the caregiver upon return – anxious/ambivalent attachment – extremely upset reaction when caregiver leaves- but when the caregiver return -they are not comforted – they are angry but want to be comforted(ambivalent/confused reaction) – Distorted? Mixture?- not defined on the slide Video – how do they act when seperated from mother/ when mother return – how secure is the crucial relationship between the primary care giver and kid – easy to blame the parents -that maybe kids received inconsistent behaviour in the past -true – the caregiver may have not given a secure base when kids needed – but not always true- can't say this particualar type of parenting leads to this type of attachment bond because 1. can't do causality – it's all correlational 2. babies come in the world with a specific personality – innate response – some babies much more difficult than others – it's all interaction between caregiver and the child – not just the parent's fault – These can predict later behaviour – relationship with parents in adulthood – or relationship with your partner later on in life – doesnt mean kids with insecure attachment style destined to have bad relationships- just one factor of many Cognitive development – piaget\s stages – developed very early on – he did it by observing his own children as they grow up – some of the work stands today – some on the other hand are criticized – but important in terms of theory in cognitive sciences – Children form new schemas ( ways of understanding of how the world works) – two key processes in which this could occur 1. assimilation – child already has a particular experience- incorporate new ideas into it 2. adpating or expanding a schema – to include new experiences which doesn't fit into an existing schema Examples of each of the stages of development 1. Sensorimotor stage – child is understanding of the world only though senses – it learns that it is not only reacting to the world but can also act on the world – moving from reaction to action e.g. a toy that makes noise- child doesn't just listen to it – but they can grab on to it – kids have to learn that sucking a nipple is different from sucking a book – object permanence- things don't stop to exist simply because you don't see them e.g. hiding behind peek-a – boo doesn't mean they don't exist – the diagram = an example where baby hasn't reached object permance 2. Preoperation stage • development of language • diagram ◦ when kids look at two cups – water is equal in both cups ◦ they see the experiment pour the water in a skinnier longer cup- now they will think taller cup had more – haven't developed logical thinking- only symbolically • ego-centric thinking – incapable of taking on the perspective of others – hard for them to understand other people don't experience the world the same way as them • at some point children developed theory of mind – other individuals have their own mental state and perception/reactions to the world 3. concrete operational stage – begin to think logical – animals and trees in front of three mountains – a child if exhibiting ego-centric view- will believe that the doll on the other side will see exactly the same as them- won't understand that the doll/other person won't see all the objects on the other side – logical thinking + catagorization of thinking – the reasoning wasn't adult thinking- adult thinking 4. Formal operational stage 12+ years – reasoning and problem solving skills – some criticism of piaget's stages – leaves little room for individual/ cultural differences – research limited to western cultures- children in other cultures may go throuh development in different stages- didn't leave room for variability – little room for strategies to solve problems – always pass/ fail- other strategies kids could be using? ***in terms of what? Cognitive development – unlike adults you can't ask them what they are thinking? What babies understand about the world – few research techniques – preferential looking technique – if you have a baby sitting in front of a screen- two different items on there – e.g. left side – grey circle; right side = lines – have a camera beside it- how long does infant spend looking at each stimulus – if the baby prefers looking at one stimulus over the other means it can sense the difference – . a stick moving back and forth behind the block 2. remove the block 3. is it b or c? - c – baby should find more surprising just like human – something novel – so baby will prefer to look at it vs. item it has already seen – Orienting reflexes- video – when we come into the world- we have far more connections then we end up with – synaptic prunning – we have a lot of connections in the brain that we lose it if we don't use them e.g. some capabilities we come with – we don't use them – so they disappear- we don't show skills that babies show – primate faces shown to two different age groups of babies – younger kids could hold attention when a new face was shown – the older baby doesn't recognize the difference and so get bored – ½ of the synapses are gone when babies grown – human babies grow up looking at only human faces – what connections are lost depends on what we keep on looking – in 10 months their skills of recognizing humans get much better – Memmory retention test – e.g. if infant kicks the leg of the crib – the mobile moves – 24 hours later- put the baby in the crib- will it remember to kick to see that the mobile will move? – infantile amnesia – first memmories of ours are from when we were3/4 years of age – no clearcut answer but maybe because haven't developed language – so complicated to make memories or maybe because some memory areas in the brain not developed What do kids understand about the laws of nature? 1. the idea that children will spend more time looking at thhing that they find surprising e.g. dropping a box on top of another – if it falls that's boring - if it floats (illusion) – children will spend more time looking at it – they understand gravity- it's not suppose to happen 2. quantity- ask children – which line has more marbles ? - the longer line has more marbles even though exactly the same - twists to the study – replaced marbles with m and ms – now motivated when asked which column do you want to eat – they do a much better job- most kids got it right Imderstanding others: thoery of mind – other people perceive/ behave in the world different from yours – a classic test to see if the children have theory of mind – false belief test – in all cultures – 5 years of age when children develop this- so some biological reasoning – development of frontal lobe Diagram for false -belief test – sally and ann – where will sally look for the ball? – If children have developed the theory of mind- they will know sally was gone when the ball was moved so sally will look for it in the basket not the box- children understant sally's theory different from their own Parents vs peers – who has a bigger influence? – Judith rich harris- argues that peers are much bigger factor – more important for people's identity than their parents – children learn how to behave inside and outside of the home – this behavior outside of the homeis what's more important -the parents' influence is not as important Impact of divorse – associated with negative outcomes- yes but non- divorsed fighting parents are worse – also the age of the child, mental stability, and how parents dealt with the divorse – outcomes are what's most important – low income family divorses is what causes the negative effect not the divorse itself – income plays a big role- struggling single mother = worse outcome Gender identity – number of terms to distinguish between – gender identity- your identify as being male or females – gender roles – different from identity – culturally defined norms for male and female characteristics – gender schemas- cognitive strctures that influence how we interpret behaviour – if we see two people of different sexes engage in the same behaviour – how do we interpret it? – gender identity disorder – two twin babies come in where they are supposed to be circumsized - one of them accidentally – penis fallen – parents after talking to researchers they changed his name to a girl and treated him like one – after hitting puberty – he identified himself as a boy despite what he was told – biological sexes does matter – not only due to a malfunction but also... – racial identity – infants at a young age can not only distinguish between genders but also the racial care givers – white babies prefer white, brown babies prefer brown – racial identity – a complicated issue – barack obama's struggle of in terms of where he belonged in terms of racial side? Development doesn't stop with childhood? - it keeps occuring even as an adult – but less stage – Erikson stage
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