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PSY100 7-12.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Chapter 7 – Attention and Memory – Memory – the nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge – Attention is selective because it is limited and attention is adaptive  Parallel processing – searching for one feature is fast and automatic; effectively blocking out other features  Serial processing – searching for two (or more) features is slow and effortful; you must examine a target one by one – Selective listening: cocktail party phenomenon  Proximity and loudness influence what you attend to but selective attention determine which conversations you hear – Shadowing - when a person listens to two different messages at once and only attends to one of the messages by repeating it out loud  There’s no conscious knowledge about the other message – Filter theory – people have a limited capacity for sensory information; screens incoming information *pays attention to the most important info – Change blindness – common failure to notice large changes in environment  Study: participants giving directions to an individual is momentarily blocked with a large object. During that time, the person receiving the info is switched but due to that blockage, the participant giving directions doesn’t notice they’re talking to a different person.  We can attend to a limited amount of information – large discrepancies exist in what most people believe they see and what they actually see – Models of memory:  Encoding phase – information acquired and processed into a neural code for the brain  Storage phase – retention of coded information (may last a second or a lifetime)  Retrieval phase – remembering or recalling stored information when we need it Modal memory model – sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory – Sensory memory – temporary memory system, stored briefly for only a fraction of a second  Often not aware that it is operating  Sensory memory persists for about a third of a second then progressively fades  Allows info to be kept for long enough to connect one image to another so everything we see is smooth – Short term memory (STM) – limited; capacity memory holds info longer than sensory memory (20-30 secs) unless you actively think about it and rehearse it – Working memory (WM) – memory system that combines info from other sources  Lasts less than half a minute without continuous rehearsing Memory span consists of seven items (+/- two items) – Chunking – organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember; the greater your expertise with the material, the more efficiently you can chunk the information and retain it – Four components of working memory (WM):  Central executive – control system; encodes information from sensory systems and determines whether it is important to be stored in long term memory  Phonological loop – auditory information; active when person tries to remember words by reading, speaking and repeating  Visuospatial sketchpad – visual information – object features and where they are located  Episodic buffer – holds temporary information about one self, drawing on long term episodic memory – Long term memory – information enters permanent storage through rehearsal  Over learning leads to improved memory  Distributed practice ( multiple sessions overtime) are remembered better than massed practice (cramming day before)  Maintenance rehearsal – repeating an item over and over again  Elaborative rehearsal – coding information in more meaningful ways – linking it to long term memory Memory involves many systems but they encode/ store different types of information in different ways – Implicit memory – unconscious memory; memories we acquire without awareness/intention  Like classical conditioning – doesn’t require conscious attention ( associating white lab coat with pain)  Repetition priming – improvement in identifying/processing a stimulus that has been experienced previously ( __ory) – we can identify it as sensory very easily – Explicit memory –information we are consciously aware of  Declarative memory – knowledge that can be declared (consciously brought to mind)  Episodic memory – past experiences including the time and place of the occurrence (think of when you had a birthday party and what you did)  Semantic memory – knowledge of facts independent of personal experience (capital of france) – Procedural memory – motor skills, habits, behaviours we remember without thinking about it – Prospective memory – remembering to do something at some time in the future  Automatic – happen without conscious awareness/intent (see a cue in the environment)  Controlled – constantly reminding yourself Mental representations are made through perceptual experiences – certain animals have certain features to identify them by – Craik & lockhard: levels of processing model – the more deeply an item is encoded the better it is remembered – Schema – hypothetic cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information  New memories can be constructed by filling in holes with existing memories, overlooking inconsistency and interpret based on past experiences – lead to biased encoding – Network of associations – things with related meaning are linked in storage  Each unit of information is a node – each node is connected to others (the close the nodes, the stronger the association)  Spreading activation – activating one node increases the likelihood of associated nodes – Retrieval cue – anything that helps someone recall information from memory  Encoding specificity principle – can recall things better when physical things produce a sense of familiarity  Goddent & Baddeley: scuba divers that learned a list of words on land would remember it better when they are on land compared to when they are in water and vice versas.  State dependent memory – enhancement of memory when internal states (mood) matches with that of when the encoding took place Memories are stored in multiple regions of the brain and linked through memory circuits – Medial temporal lobes – important for consolidation (immediate memory into LTM) of new declarative memories  Responsible for coordinating and strengthening connections among neurons when something is learned  H.M. had a large portion of the hypothalamus removed which resulted in an inability to store new explicit memory  Clive wearing lacked ability to form new memories and recall past memories  Reconsolidation – once memories are activated, they need to be consolidated again to be stored back in memory (may differ from original memory) – Hippocampus – important for spatial memory  Memory for physical environment, directions, cognitive maps  Morris water maze: after several trials for a mouse to find a hidden platform in water, over several trials it finds the platform more easily – Frontal lobes – crucial for encoding and many aspects of memory like working memory which holds temporary memory that is used to solve problems  Deep encoding tasks  Remembering words associated with stronger activation of frontal lobe – Amygdala – memory of emotional events – Cerebellum – procedural memory (motor learning, blinking, conditioning) – Memory modulators – neurotransmitters that weaken or enhance memory – Forgetting – inability to retrieve memory from long term storage – Transcience – patterns of forgetting over time – unused memories are forgotten – Most forgetting occurs due to interference:  Proactive interference – old information inhibits ability to remember new information  Retroactive interference – new information inhibits ability to remember old information – Blocking – person temporary unable to remember something (like blanking out)  Tip of the tongue phenomenon – occurs because interference from words that are similar in some way – Absent mindedness – inattentive or shallow encoding of events  Different cultures have variations in patterns of attention (Americans may pay attention to the foreground of a picture but Japanese pays attention to the picture as a whole) – Amnesia – deficit in long term memory (damage to medial temporal lobes)  Retrograde amnesia – lose past memories of everything  Anterograde amnesia – lose ability to perform new memories – Flashbulb memories - vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, emotionally arousing event  Not necessarily correct but people are more confident of these than ordinary events – Source misattribution – misremembering time, place, person involved with a memory – Suggestibility – misremembering after being told misleading information – biased memories  People are bad eyewitnesses – confidence =/= accuracy. People tend to focus on weapons and actions during a crime scene, not minor details such as what the offender looks like – Source amnesia – person has memory for an event but doesn’t remember where the information was from – Memory bias – changing of memories overtimes in ways consistent with current beliefs Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence Mental representation – hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality – allows questions to be answered about the object, even though an object is not present Cognition – mental activity such as thinking or representing information – Analogical representation – mental representations which have some of the characteristics of actual objections (ex. Queen Elizabeth II) – Symbolic representation – words/ideas that do not correspond to characteristics of actual objects (ex. Queen) you see the word ‘violin’ and you can imagine one Some thoughts take the form of mental images. Visual imagery is associated with activity in visual perception. When information is retrieved from memory, representation in the mind’s eye parallels representation in the brain the first time a picture is seen – Study: determining whether an “R” is normal or a mirror image when rotated. The further it is away from an upright position, the harder it is to identify because it takes longer to mentally rotate the object. – If something cannot be perceived wholly by our perceptual system, we cannot form a complete analogical representation of it Grouping things based on shared properties is called categorization. It reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory – more efficient way of thinking. – Concept – category that includes subtypes and/or individual items – Defining attribute model – objects categorized according to certain set of rules/ specific sets of features  often make exceptions to rules  some attributes are more important and some are better for defining categories than others – prototype model – objects categorized according to how closely it resembles the prototype of the category – allows flexibility – exemplar model – information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membership (if it has all the attributes of a dog, it is a dog) Schemas enable us to interact with complex realities of our daily environments – perceive, organize, process information – scripts – schemas about sequences in certain situations  common situations have consistent attributes and people have specific roles with situational context (ex. Going to the movies and behaving in a theatre)  gender roles are a type of schema which operates at an unconscious level  scripts dictate appropriate behaviour – what is viewed as appropriate in society Reasoning determines if a conclusion is valid or reasonable. – Decision making – select the best alternative among several options – Problem solving – finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal  Deductive reasoning – reason from general to specific by using a role/belief to determine if the conclusion is valid – using logic to draw a conclusion  Syllogisms – statement containing a statement and conclusion. If A is true and B is true, then. A=B, B=C, so A must be equal to C  Inductive reasoning – reason from specific to general by using examples/instances to determine if a conclusion is likely to be true Heuristics – shortcuts (rule of thumb) used to reduce amount of thinking needed to move from an initial state to a goal state (making a decision). Occurs unconsciously. Only requires minimal cognitive resources so you can decide quickly and often leads to good decisions. However it can result in biases. – Availability heuristic – estimate the frequency of an event based on how easily examples of it comes to mind – making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind – Representative heuristic – a rule based on how similar the person/object is to our prototype for that category – base a decision on the extent to which option reflects what we already believe about the situation *can lead to fault reasoning  Conjunction fallacy – mistaken belief that finding a specific member in two overlapping categories is more likely than finding any member of one of the larger, general categories – Framing effect – effect of presentation on how information is perceived  Affective forecasting – people overestimate the extent of negative event that will affect them in the future; only consider immediate pain (people try to avoid situations that involve loss)  People engage in strategies that make the feel better – making sense of an event helps reduce its negative emotional consequences – Anchoring effect – occurs when an individual attempts to solve a problem involving numbers and uses previous knowledge (anchor) to keep the response within a limited range. Anchors can be introduced by other people. Problems are not identified as problems until we are stuck on it. How a problem is viewed / represented can affect how people solve it. When decisions are not crucial people should restrict their opinions and settle for choices that meet their needs even if it’s not the best choice. – Satisfiers – live by the idea of ‘good enough’ – Maximizers – seek to make the best choices Intelligence is the human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly and adapt to environmental challenges. IQ is used to predict success – Mental age – assessment of a child’s intellectual standing compared with those of the same age – General intelligence (g) – idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities. Intelligence comes in many forms  Fluid intelligence – information processing in complex circumstances – working memory (thinking quickly and flexibly)  Crystallized intelligence – knowledge acquired through experience and using it to solve problems (information from LTM) – Gardner proposed a theory of multiple intelligence – people can show different skills in many different areas – Sternberg – 3 types of intelligence:  Analytical intelligence – being good at problem solving, figuring out puzzles, academic challenges  Creative intelligence – ability to gain insight and solve novel problems – thinking in interesting ways  Pratical intelligence – dealing with everyday tasks, being an effective leader – EQ – social intelligence – the ability to manage one’s emotions, understand emotional language and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions – have a strong genetic component – Some groups score lower on standardized tests due to stereotype threats  Stereotype threat – anxiety about confirming stereotypes interferes with performance – Injury to frontal lobes causes impairment to fluid intelligence but not crystallized intelligence – Through behaviour genetics, study show genes help determine intelligence – Poor nutrition can affect brain development and lower intelligence – Those who score higher on intelligence tests respond faster and more consistently on reaction time – Enriches environments enhance learning and memory – environment influences how genes are expressed (involved in brain development) – The longer the child remains in school, the higher the IQ – Flynn effect – environmental factors contribute to intelligence, cognitive abilities escalate within the span of one generation so they do better on intelligence testings  Due to better nutrition, health care, and getting more education Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion Absence of emotion sabotages a person’s ability to make rational decisions. Motivation and emotion makes things happen – they are affected by how we feel. – Motivation – factors that energize/ stimulate behaviour – Drives – psychological states that encourage behaviours that satisfy needs (biological social deficiency) – Maslow’s need hierarchy - basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needs  Physiological > safety > belonging & love > esteem > self-actualization  Self-actualization – state achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained – Arousal – physiological activation such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or muscle tension – Homeostasis – tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium – Negative feedback – when drive state creates arousal, it encourages you to do something to reduce the drive. To maintain homeostasis. – Incentives – external stimuli that motivate behaviours (getting good grades motivate you to study hard) – Yerkes-Dodson Law – performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point then decrease with increasing arousal. We are motivated to seek optimal level of arousal – Pleasure principle – drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain – People engage in behaviours that do not necessarily satisfy biological needs (eating sweets) Eating – internal signals responsible for hunger and satiation – controlled by the hypothalamus. Classically conditioned to associate eating with regular meal times. – Leptin – hormone released from fat to hypothalamus and inhibits eating behaviour – Ghrelin – hormone from stomach that surges before eating and decreases after eating – Glucostatic theory – glucose levels in bloodstream – Lipostatic theory – set point for body fat – More variety and larger portions = more eating. Sensory specific satiety: animals presented with lots of food will eat more trying to fulfill the nutritious requirements. – Damage to libic system or right frontal lobes produces groumand syndrome (obsessed with fine foods and food preparation) Eating: Rat conditions – Hyperphagia – damaging middle of hypothalamus leads to eating more – Aphagia – damaing outer are of hypothalamus leads to eating less – Extrinsic motivation – motivation to perform an activity because of external goals (obtaining an award) – Intrinsic motivation – perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity rather than for an apparent external goal/purpose (listening to music, playing sports)  Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation – Psychological reactance – motivational state aroused when our feelings of personal freedom are threatened – affects how we make choices – Self determination theory – people motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others, and autonomy – extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic value – Self perception theory – people seldom are aware of their specific motives – Goal – desired outcome associated with some specific object or some future behavioural intention (focusing on short concrete goals facilitate achieving long term goals) – Self regulation – process by which people alter or change their behaviour to attain personal goals – Achievement motive – desire to do well relative to standards of success – Delay of gratification – transcending immediate temptations to achieve long term goals  Turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions (mentally transforming desired things to undesired things)  Ignoring  Self distraction – Amygdala – motivating behaviour – Prefrontal cortex – cold cognitive processes (control of thought and behaviour) – Need to belong theory – need for interpersonal attachments in a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes  Survival tasks best accomplished by group cooperation – humans have been living in groups  Lack of social contact causes emptiness and despair  Increased anxiety leads to increased affiliated motivations (when alone in a new place, will like to find other friends)  Rejection can cause pain deeper and longer lasting than physical pain – Social comparison theory – motivated to have accurate information about ourselves and others  Compare ourselves with those relatively similar to us – Sexual response cycle – pattern of physiological responses during sexual activity  Hypothalamus stimulates sexual behaviour  Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution Hormones cause changes during puberty. Hormone levels increase throughout the body to stimulate physical changes. It also a motivation to activate reproductive behaviour – Androgens – more important for reproductive behaviour than other hormones – Oxytoxin – may promote feelings of love and attachment between partners – Do
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