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Lecture 2

PSYB20- week 2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Mark A.Schmuckler

PSYB20 Week 2Themes and Theories of Human Development S2A A set of concepts that describe and explain some aspect of our experience a scientific theorywhat that scientist believes to be true about their area of development the purpose of a theory to organize our thinking into a broad way of thinking B Parsimony a theory should be concise yet be able to explain a wide range of observations essentially the theory with the fewest principles win Falsifiability theory is capable of making future prediction Heuristic Valuedoesnt limit you for only which the theory was devised can apply the theory outside original cases S3are children innately good or evilthe child does not have a good or evil nature vs nurture what we are talking about here is are human being shaped by their genetic composition or are they shaped by their surrounding and environment far too simplistic to say one or the other more of a question of how do the two combineactivity vs passivity the Childs own role in his or her own development are they activeor are they a passive recipient in what the world throws at themcontinuity where we see development as being continuous or discontinuous S4Graph smooth growth curve and theres no large jumps S5 GraphDiscontinuous developmentdiscrete steps as they age S6 quantitative changes in degree ie height adding little pieces on changes in amount qualitativediscontinuousa change in kind the organism is fundamentally different than they were before ie tadpole to a frogcaterpillars to butterfliesconnectedness of development how much of a relationshipconnection between early developmental attributes and later developmental attributes similarities vs difference changes that we experience are they similar or particular in cultures Person to person is everybody s development unique universalattainment of language Sexual maturity S7 children experience conflict between biological drives and social norms determines nature of the structure of individuals personalityPeople who were important Sigmund Freud psychiatrist who lived in Vienna nad moved over to England formulated his theory from observation from life histories of mentally disturbed patients that he treated focused on childhoodtraumatic events wanted to uncover unconscious motivation developed psychosexual drives how parents manages these drives had an impact on their personality the idbiological needs egorational part direct ids impulsessuperego moral arbiter made sure the ego fit into internal process when the baby is born it is pure id ego emerges within 2 yrs superego emerges around 6 yrs 1
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