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Lecture 01.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Alison Luby

Jason Ho Introductory Psychology Page 1 PSY100H1 July 2, 13 Lecture Notes Lecture One: Introductory to Psychology What is Psychology? Psyche – soul, spirit, and mind Logos – knowledge, study of a subject Psychology – Scientific study of mind, brain and behaviour – Mind = Scientific mental activity Common Misconceptions Psychology = Psychotherapy Psychology – as a way to manipulate people – gives the ability to ‘analyze’ others upon meeting – research studies are made on animals (mice and monkeys) – are studied by more mentally unstable people than the general p opulation Psychology addresses many topics – Memory – Death – Stress – Conformity – Therapy – Creativity – Love – Aging – Persuasion – Sexuality – Hypnosis – Emotion Scientific Skepticism As scientists, we should use scientific skepticism. Skeptikos – “to consider carefully” Amiable skepticism: 1. Evaluate all claims with an open mind 2. Insist on persuasive evidence before accepting these claims Critical Thinking – Common sense psychology is a myth. – We can’t just rely on our “common sense” because it will often leaday. astr – In this class, you will learn how psychology tries to disentangle truth from “common sense”. – In the process, you will learn the tools to help you become more informed consumers of persuasive messages you might come across. Critical thinking – process of objectively/systematically evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information to reach reasonable conclusion. Compare psychology with pseudo-psychologies, – Gives the appearance of science but are actually false – Psychics – Mediums – Palmistry – Psychometrics – Psychokinesis – Astrology – One reason these pseudosciences remain is t hat they’re difficult to falsify . – Correlation is not Causation Third variable problem – If A and B are correlated: A causes B or B causes A or C causes A and B Correlation-causation fallacy – the error of assuming that because one thing is correlated with another, it must cause the other Reference: Introduction to Psychology(1).pdf Jason Ho Introductory Psychology Page 2 PSY100H1 July 2, 13 Types of Psychology Psychology subdivided into specialized areas . (Areas often overlap) e.g., developmental, clinical… Biological – Biological factors Developmental – Development/change across lifespan Cognitive – Mental processes underlying thinking Personality – Similarities/differences between people Clinical – Assess, understand, change abnormal behaviour Counselling – dealing with normal life situations Health – Effects of behaviour on health School – counselling & guidance in school Educational – learning/teaching Social – People’s influences on each other Industrial/organizational – job training selection Quantitative – test validity Sport – Motivation/emotion athletic performance Forensic – juries and other law related topics Environment – Physical environment on behaviour Origins of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt – “father of psychology” – Studied mental life and conscious experience, using methods from sciences. – Founded first psychological laboratory at University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. – Developed method of introspection (systematic examination of subjective mental exper
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