mTuner: Chapter 3 & 4
Question 1: When light enters, signal travels optic nerves found in the retina? When light enters
your eye, what is the order in which the signal travels before it reaches the optic nerve, for the
three type of neuron found in the retina?
Answer: Photoreceptors > Bipolar > Ganglion > Optic
Question 2: The active expletory aspect of touch and perception sensation is called
Question 3: Certain species of Moth are much better at detecting quiets sounds campred to
Answer: Greater than 50%
If specie are better at detecting quiet sounds compared to human then they likely have much
lower absolute threshold for hearing compared to humans. An absolute threshold refers to
the minimum amount of energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it to be reliably
detected 50% of the time it is presented. If an example sound wave acts as an absolute
threshold for humans, then a species with a lower absolute threshold should be able to
detect the sound greater than 50% of the time. (ignoring the sometimes confounding effect of
frequency) the time is presented.
Question 4: Clinical psychology. Sound. Place theory. Damaged ear. Cochlea. Given the place
theory of hearing, what kind of sound would you expect the patient to have difficulty hearing
through their damaged ear? Patient suffers from damage near the base of their cochlea in the
ear of interest.
Answer: Sounds of high frequency
According to the place theory of hearing, the perception of pitch depends upon the location
along the basiliar membrane of the cochlear where specific sounds most stimulate hair cells.
Generally, high-frequency sounds are thought to stimulate hair cells in greater proportion
near the base of the cochlea, closest to the ossicles (ear bones), while lower frequency
sounds are thought to stimulate hair cells in greater proportions toward the end of the
Question 5: Gap between neuron cells
Answer: Synaptic cleft
Question 6: Drug. Doctor. Dopamine. Neurotransmitters
Answer: Dopamine Agonist
Question 7: Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, which are found in our muscles and
joints, are examples sensory receptors that provide information about changes in muscle length
and tension. Without these receptors, we would nto be able They are involved in what part of
sense of touch? Answer: Kinesthesis is the sense of bodily motion and position. Kinesthetic receptors in our
muscles, joints, and tendons transmit information to our brain about the ongoing moment and
position of our limbs and muscle, and enable us to coordinate complex motor actions like
carefully holding a newspaper or throwing a ball. Nociception is the activity of nerve pathways
that respond to uncomfortable stimulation, while haptic is the active, explortatory aspect of
touch sensation and perception. Synthesis is a not a word
Question 8: Enter dark room. Part of the eye. Black dot in dark looks bigger and then smaller
in the light. What part of the eye is changing during the movement between the dark room and
the hallway that creates this alteration in the diameter of the black dot?
Your pupils do not actually change in size at all; nor do the lens or cornea the apparent
change in size of the pupils is due to the alteration of the iris, which contains muscles for
botch constriction and dilation. The iris sits in front of the pupil like an umbrella with a hole in
the centre, blocking more light when iris sphincter muscles are contracted and blocking less
light when the iris dilator muscles are contracted.
Question 9: Glossitis refers to the inflammation tongue and it can sometimes result in the
destruction of the papillae. This in turn reduce the number of taste buds on parts of the tongue,
and can result in distortion or a reduction in the ability to taste. Following treatment, the
tongue is able to rebuild the papillae. Do you think that sucessfuly tremaent would also happen
to reverse the alterations in taste as well?
Answer: Yes, the taste replenishes themselves overtime
The taste buds replenish themselves about every 10 days throughout ones lifespan and are the
only type of sensory receptor known to do so. Taste buds are not known to change their
sensitive to stimuli at all, regardless of circumstance.
Question 10: Neural communication when an action potential sends signals between neurons,
the ________ structure of the receiving neuron is affected by various neurotransmitters. is
Neurons the ____ structure?
Question 11: inferior colliculus are midbrain structures that enable us. What is the other major
way the inferior colliculi are able to identify? Where is the second sound coming from?
Answer: By sensing differences in the loudness of the sound.
The inferior colliculi are able to sense differences in the loudness of a sound as it reaches each
ear. A sound slightly to the left of a person will have greater loudness when it reaches the left
ear than when it reaches the right ear. This subtle proportional difference in the loudness of a
sound reaching each ear provides enough information for the interior colliculi to localize that
Question 12: A chemical released throughout the body. Secreted by glands found in the
endocrine system and is relatively slower acting. What class does this bodily chemical belong
to? Answer: Hormones are chemicals secreted by glands of the endocrine system. Generally
neurotransmitters work almost immediately within the microscopic space of the synapse,
whereas hormones are secreted into the bloodstream and travel throughout the body.
Question 13: Hanging up poster Tracy pricks herself with a tack and feels a shaprt pain which
cause her to to move her hand from the object. This resulting neural firing is cause by a temp
shift in electrical activity referred to as a ____ potential
Answer: Action Potential
Question 14: Nucleus of a neuron is found in which part of the nerve cell?
Answer: Cell body is part of the neuron that contains that nucleus that houses the cells genetic
Question 15: Interior region of the axon has a charge
At its resting potential, the outside of the neuron has a high concentration of (+) charge ions
(Na and K) while the interior of the axon has fewer (+) charge ions as well as a relative high
concentration of negatively charged chlorine ions. This difference in charge between the
inside and outside of the cell leaves the inside of the axon with negative charge.
Question 16: Psychophysics Class. Working. Money, Punishes false alarm. Response bias
Answer: 0.50 for a hit
Question 17: Optic Chiasm. Optic nerves. Retinal Photoreceptors. Visual Cortex. Lateral
geniculate nucleus. Light entered the eye.
Answer: Photoreceptors, Optic nerves, Optic Chiasm, LGN, Visual Cortex
Question 18: Stary? night. Looking up at a very faint star. You notice that the star appears dim
when you stare directly at it, but becomes brighter when you keep it within your field of vision
and look elsewhere in the sky. Why?
Answer: Rods are more than cone in the peripheral regions of the retina.
Rods are more sensitive in low-light conditions compared to