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Chapter 7-psy270.docx

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Gillian Rowe

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Chapter 7 (Memory Errors)  autobiographical memory  recollected events that belong to person’s life  can be experienced in two ways: 1. field perspective – remembering event as you are seeing it; more likely to observe recent memories 2. observer perspective – remembering an event as observed from the outside (seeing yourself in the event); more likely to observe more remote memories  visual experience plays an important role in forming autobiographical memory patients who had damage to the visual cortex lost autobiographical memory (visual stimuli was not present to serve as retrieval cue)  difference in laboratory and autobiographical memory  experiment participants were told to take pictures of the campus, later were shown their pictures and pictures someone else took; after period of time shown these pictures again and the brain was scanned; result A pics and L pics activated many of the same regions of the brain, mainly MTL (hippocampus); A pics however activated more extensive network of brain areas (elicited memory of taking the picture)  reminiscence bump – enhanced memory for adolescence and young adulthood that can be demonstrated in people over 40 years old  life-narrative hypothesis – people assume their life identities during this time (lots of “firsts”)  cognitive hypothesis – encoding is better during periods of rapid change followed by period of stability  for people who immigrate later in their life the reminiscence bump shifts (predicted by hypothesis)  cultural life script hypothesis – events are easier to recall when they fit the cultural life script for that person’s culture  flashback memories – person’s memory for hearing about shocking, highly emotional events  Brown and Kulik  flashback memories are remembered for long periods of time, highly vivid and detailed  “now print” mechanism is involved with flashback memories -they are like photographs that resist fading  assumption flawedasked people about flashback memories, but there no way to determine if they were accurate  repeated recall – measuring person’s memory after the stimulus then days, months, years later  space shuttle experiment  participants filled questionnaire after the explosion, then were tested on their memory 3 years later memory changed  memories are often inaccurate and lack in detail  world trade centre experiment  participants filled questionnaire after the attach about ordinary memory that occurred days before the attach and flashback memory of the attack; then were tested on their memory 32 weeks later memory for both events declines, people were more confident about the flashback memory  narrative rehearsal hypothesis – we can remember flashback memories somewhat better than everyday memories because we constantly rehearse them (seeing on TV)  flawed because those are not flashback memories of how you heard about the event The constructive nature of memory  constructive approach to memory – memories are based on what actually happened plus the additional factors such as person’s knowledge, expectations and experiences  Bartlet’s “war of ghosts” experiment  participants read the story, then asked them to come back a number of times to recall the story over and overthe story was reconstructed based on the culture in which each of the participants were raised  guesses about high school grades  college students were asked to recall their highschool grades; most of them inflated the gradesgood students constructed their memory based on the experience of receiving good grades  source memory – process of determining the origin of memories  source monitoring error (source misattribution) – misidentifying the source of memory  “becoming famous over night” experiment  participants presented with the list of nonfamous names; then told they were not famous the immediate test they were presented with the list of same nonfamous people, nonfamous they’ve never seen and famous names correctly identified old non famous names as non famous 2. in the same test 24 hrs later many identified the old nonfamous names as famous  source monitoring error the name is familiar but not sure from where you know it  making inferences  experiment list of sentences  people were presented with the list of sentences; when asked to recall the sentences specific words in the sentences became different (vanishes became melted, hit became smashed)  the inferences are based on knowledge gained through experience  experiment bird house  two groups: experimental and control; experimental – he was pounding the nail; control he was looking for the nailexperimental remembered seeing hammer in the sentence, control didn’t  experiment baseball game  two groups: people who knew baseball and those who didn’t; both
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