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Lecture

CH12 - Higgins.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY426H1
Professor
Jason Plaks
Semester
Winter

Description
Higgins REGULATORY FOCUS AS A MOTIVATIONAL PRINCIPAL  we avoid pain and approach pleasure – hedonistic principal (thorndike 1911) - oftend discussed as if it is unitary (single, uniform)  observation indicated - that when a behavior in a certain situation produced pleasure, that behavior was likely to be repeated in that situation - when a behavior in a situation produced pain, that behavior is less likely to be repeated in that situation - this prinicpal provide description of events rather than understanding of underlying processes  later – skinner (1938) proposes the 'pleasure prinicipal' – states that the occurrence of operant behaviors increases when they are followed by a reinforcers - also describes a pattern of observed events  focus of higgins articles – self-regulation towards desired end states - most important characteristic of this self-regulation is approach motivation --- the attempt to reduce discrepencies between current states and desired end-states (is this what approach motivation means )  Higgins critism of previous models - - although animal learning-biological models, cybernetic-control models and dynamic models all distinguish approaching desired end states from avoiding undersired end- states, they do not distinguish between different ways of approaching desired end-states - these models also do not identify different types of desired end-states that relate to different means of approach  Questions - 1. Higgins criticizes many previous models (animal learning-biological models, cybernetic-control models and dynamic models) for not distinguishing between different ways of approaching desired end-states and for not identifying different types of desired end-states. Do you agree w/ these criticisms and do you think that Higgins theory properly addresses these points in his own theory? 2. In his theory, Higgins suggests that individuals can increase the likelihood that they will attain a desired end-state (ie reduce discrepancies ) by either approaching matches or avoid mismatches to that end-state. How does this compare to cognitive dissonance theory? 3. Higgins earlier self-discrepancy theory describes how certain forms of child- caretaker interactions increase likelihood that child will develop strong desired end-states. How does this compare to Skinner's theory of operant conditioning? 4. highlights the difference between promotion-focus and prevention-focus. How does this compare to  Gary's model – suggests approaching 'rewards' and approaching 'non-punishment' as the being the same - in contracts – the regulatory focus – The theory of self-regulatory focus  suggests that there are different ways of approaching different types of desired end-states  assumes that the hedonistic principal should operate differently when serving fundamenally different needs (i.e survival needs vs secuirity needs - ie when children are learning how to behave when approaching pleasure/avoiding pain , what they learn about regulating pleasure and pain for their security needs may be different from what they learn when regulating pleasure and pain for their survival nees - this theory proposes that that regulatory focus for nurturance-related regulation and security-related regulation are different --- nurturance involves promotion focus, security involves prevention focus  higgins earlier self-discrepnicy theory describes how certian forms of child- caretaker interactions increas likihood that child will develope strong desired end- states - desired end-states represent either 1. strong ideals -the child's own or a caretaker' wishes, aspiration, hopes for them (strong ideals 2. strong oughts – a child's or caretakers, beliefs about their duties, obligations, and responsibilites  this theory proposes that strong ideals vs. Strong oughts differ in regulatory focus - ideal sefl-regulation – involves a promotion focus - ought self-regulation – involves a prevention focus  promotion focus caretaker-child interaction - 1. child experiencing pleasure of the presence of a positive outcome (pleasure from being rewarded for behaving in a desired way) – ie a hug after behaving in a desired manner 2. a child experiencing pain of the abscence of a positive outcome – i.e ending a meal when a child throws away food - pleasure and pain from these two interactions are experienced at the presence or absence of positive outcomes --- what is communicated to the child is – attaining accomplishments or fulfilling hopes and aspiration and it is communicated in reference to a state of the child that does or does not attain the desired end-state --- the regulatory focus of promotion – a concern with advancement, growth and accomplishment  prevention focused caretaker-child interaction 1. child experienceing the pleasure of the absence of a negative outcome ie. Training a child to be alert to dangers or teaching a child to 'mind their manners', 2. child experiencing pain in the presence of a negative outcome the caretaker behaves harshly with a child to get their attention – yelling, punishing --- pleausre and pain are experienced in the absence or presence of these negative outcomes - the caretaker's message to the child is safety, and being responsible and meeting obligations and it is communicated in reference to a state of a child that does or does not attain the desired end-states – what the caretaker believes the child ought to or ought not to do - prevention focus – a concern with protection, safety and responsibility  the socialization difference show how regulatory focus distinguishes between different types of self-regulation in relation to desired end-states  children learn from interactions with their caretakers to regulate themselves in relation to promotion-focus ideals or prevention-focus oughts  this theory distinguishes between two types of desired end-states 1. aspirations and accomplishments (promotion-focus) 2. responsibilities and safety (prevention-focus)  momentary situations can also induce regulatory focus ( promotion-focus or prevention-focus) - other people (teachers, bosses, peers etc) can communicate 1. gain-non-gain information (promotion) or 2. non-loss-loss information (prevention)  NOTE - -promotions focus: sensitivey to to the presence or absence of positive outcomes and use approach as strategic means\ - -prevention focus: sensitivity to presence/absence of negative outcomes and use avoidance as strategic means Approach and Avoidance  presents evidence showing the differing way regulating pleasure and pain have imp motivanal consequences Approaching matches and avoidance mismatches as strategic means  individuals can increase the likelihood that they will attain a desired end-state (ie reduce discrpencies ) by either approaching matches or avoid mismatches to that end-state  Higgin et al tested the hypothesis that – strategic inclinations to approach matches is more likel for promotion-focus regulation wheras strategic inclination to avoid mismatches is more likely for prevention-focus regulatio
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