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RLG100Y1 Lecture Notes - Messianic Judaism, Essenes, Hasmonean Dynasty

Course Code
David Perley

of 6
Judaism Continued 23/01/2013 7:05:00 AM
Vedas Questions
- Vedas = ancient traditions
- Talk about the text
- Talk about the fire sacrifice
- Talk about how important the oral dimension is
Atman and Brahman
- Need to talk about Moksha, Samsara, Maya
- Define both terms
- Atman human soul or even better the most eternal part of our soul
- Brahman Supreme controller
- So what? Why is it important?
1800 BCE traditional date of Abraham, legendary first patriarch
1250 BCE traditional date of exodus
Jerusalem = Capital of Israelite kingdom under king David
First Temple (King Solomon)
This was gods first home
End of northern kingdoms, destroyed by Assyrian’s in 721 BCE
First temple was destroyed (exile of Israelites in Babylonia
Temples been destroyed
70 CE second temple
Proto-rabbinical Tradition begins
Substituting practices in this time
They substitute Text, Synagogues
Prayers, Hymns begin
They focus on the text, interpretation and debate on the meaning
o 5 books of Moses
o Hebrew Bible
Persian idea of the afterlife
Babylonians are exiled for 50 years
Assyrians come and conquer northern kingdom Then the
Babylonians then the Persians take over
Cyrus (Persian king) is referred to as a Messiah
God chose Cyrus to help out
Messiah is a religious person that comes to help out to save
everything and fight evil off
Jews now are in Diaspora
Diaspora = Jews no longer in homeland but continuing traditions
Judaism became a tradition all about diaspora
After the Persians the Greeks take over
Second Temple Era
Maccabean Revolt (167 BCE)
Greeks take over
Now everyone speaks Greek
Hebrew is now a scholarly language, not many people speak it any
Greek influence on Judaism
Judah Maccabee and his family take over as a dynasty for a little
“Hasmonean Dynasty”
Sect Formation
o Sadducees - Priests
o Pharisees legal experts, textual experts
o Zealots Highly political radicals (famous story of Masada)
o Essenes -
Roman Reclaim Are in 63 BCE
Now the romans have taken over
Idea that we’ve done something wrong because we lost control of
our homeland again
Hope for a Messiah to come and help
Messianic Judaism starts to develop
66CE: Revolt temple destruction in 70 CE
This revolt was a failed attempt to get the holy land back
Rabbinical Judaism
Templebased religion community and text-based religion
If tradition was only in Jerusalem it might have wiped out with out
their temples
Babylonia focus on the text
Religion shifted from temple religion to text religion
Now the text binds the people not the temple
No temple = no priest = no sacrifices
More participation from each member now in this tradition
People and the text helped the religion survive
In synagogue sing hymns recite prayers
Survival = Codification of scripture (200 CE) and interactive
network of exegesis
Synagogue; Pharisees Rabbis
Temples destruction moved toward rabbical Judaism although
Babylonians already moved towards rabbical Judaism
Revelation and Interpretation (exam Hint revelation)
Midrash (activity of) = Exegesis Interpretation
Written Torah (could mean Hebrew bible) / Oral Torah (other set of
teachings and wisdom)
Oral Torah eventually gets compiled and turned into text = Mishnah
200 CE: Mishnah
Mishnah + Gemara (supplementary interpretation) = Talmud
2 versions of the Talmud
Talmud has the oral Torah in it
Two important are Hebrew Bible and Talmud
Babylonian version of Talmud most frequently used
Jerusalem version of Talmud
Shekinah = divine presence in the world
Torah = Written in Hebrew, Aramaic
Talmud = Written in Hebrew, Aramaic
Menorah = candle used in temple now used for Jewish holiday
Oil in these candles lasted for 8 days, and so they thought it was a
blessing = Start of Hanukah
MENORAH will be on the final exam *******