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soc101 keyterms&definitions lectures 11-15.docx

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Robert Brym

Lecture 11 Gender Inequality Terms and definitions Terms Definitions Affirmative action Comprises the policies and programs designed to create opportunities for, and to further the achievements of, historically disadvantages groups in the labour force. – setting targets and quotas for hiring and promotion of members of discriminated groups in the past, one aspect of employment equity Employment equity Principle of equal treatment of all groups in the paid labour force, seek to dismantle barriers and alter workplace cultures to create opportunities for and further the advancement of historically disadvantaged groups Equal pay for work Seek to equalize the wage rates offered for different jobs that are of comparable worth in of equal value terms of knowledge and skill Feminism Refers to both the body of knowledge about the causes and nature of women’s subordination to men in society, and agendas for removing that subordination Gender inequalities Inequalities between men and women in the distribution of prestige, power and material well-being, inequalities in relations to male domination and female subordination Gender stereotypes Set of prejudicial generalizations about men and women based on the oversimplified belief that sex determines distinct personality traits and causes men and women to behave in different ways Glass ceiling Level in an organization above which women and members of minorities are seldom found Labour-force Percentage of population above age 15 that is in the paid labour force participation rate Material well-being Having access to the economic resources necessary to pay for adequate food, clothing, housing and possessions Nonstandard work Part-week employment, part-year employment, limited-term contract employment, employment through temporary-help agencies, self-employment, multiple job-holding Part-time work Jobs involving fewer hours of work than is the norm for full-time work Power Capacity to influence and control others, regardless of any resistance they might offer Prestige Social evaluation or ranking, by general consensus, of occupational activities and positions in a hierarchical order that reflects the degree of respect, honour, or deference the person in the position is to be accorded Public policy Refers to the government’s stance on issues and problems, as expressed through its statements and actions, or its inaction Sex segregation of Concentration of women and men in different occupations occupations Sex typing (or sex Designation of an occupation as “female” or “male”, depending on the sex for whom it is labelling) of considered appropriate occupations Skill Ability or expertise in performing a given technique or task. Existing rankings, incomes and levels of education are indicators of skill Social movement An enduring collective attempt to change part or all of society by means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, or establishing pressure groups, unions, and political parties Social roles Expectations and behaviours associated with particular positions in society Standard work Full-time, full-year employment, usually accompanied by job-related benefits, such as vacation leave, sick leave, and parental leave, as well as by health and pension benefits Statistical Discrimination that occurs when negative decisions concerning the hiring or promotion of an discrimination individual are made on the basis of the average characteristics of the group to which the individual belongs Visible minority Category of people who are non-white and who, because of their race, may face discrimination in hiring and promotion Women’s Social movement that takes action to improve the conditions of women movement Lecture 12 Race and Ethnicity Terms and Definitions Terms Definitions Civic nationalism A form of nationalism in which the social boundaries of the nation are defined in territorial and geographic terms Culture of poverty Some ethnic groups do not readily assimilate, and hence are poor, because their culture does thesis not value economic success, hard work, and achievement Discrimination Practices that deny members of particular groups equal access to societal rewards Institutional racism Discriminatory racial practices built into such prominent structures as the political, economic, and education systems New racism A theory that suggests that it is natural for groups to form bounded communities. One group is neither better nor worse than another, but feelings of antagonism will be aroused if outsiders are admitted Point system Used by Canadian government to select independent immigrants. Applicants are awarded points for various attributes that the Canadian government deems important in determining an immigrant’s economic contribution to Canada Prejudice Unfavourable, generalized, and rigid belief applied to all members of a group Primordialist thesis The theory that ethnic attachments reflect a basic tendency of people to seek out, and associate with, their “own kind” Quiet revolution Refers to the social, political, and cultural changes that occurred in Quebec in the 1960, in part because of the emergence of a large francophone middle class Race Socially constructed label that has been used to describe certain kinds of physical differences between people Split labour- Holds that racial and ethnic conflicts are rooted in differences in the price of labour market theory Stereotypes Exaggerated, oversimplified images of the characteristics of social categories Vertical mosaic Social structure in which ethnic groups occupy different and unequal positions within the stratification system Lecture 13 Global Inequality Terms and Definitions Terms Definitions Capitalism An economic system based on profit seeking in competitive markets. It is associated with dynamic technological development, the development of class inequality, and accelerating environmental destruction Deindustrialization Is a process, linked to neoliberal policies, that facilitates businesses moving
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