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LECTURE 04 - OCT 03 1012.rtf

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Paul Armstrong

LECTURE 04 - OCTOBER 03 - 2012 Industrialization and theories of inequality Toucqueville article.. important thoughts for the midterm... end of article... authour states... this social/economic structure which we see in quebec at the time.. it looks like feudalism, but it wouldn't be fair to classify it that way.. if a question were to appear.. one thing you would do would be to explain what are the key aspects to this regime? it was a tool for colonization.. there were 3 key players or social groups.. 1 - people that worked the land, the habitant.. 2 - the people that managed the land, the lords.. 3 - the state or monarchy which was back in europe.. in feudalism, there is constant downward pressure.. from the monarchy all the way down to the peasantry.. especially for production and economic responsibility.. in quebec france, it could not be totally considered feudal.. there were obligations for the lord and for the habitants of the land.. there could be a short answer question on the midterm regarding this.. show the key structures of feudalism and what was happening in quebec at the time and the differences between the two.. HISTORICAL CHANGES: CAPITALISM Enclosure Movement The introduction of an urban population who have to sell their labour.. Wool had become an important commodity. Land owners would combine parcels of land to create larger farms that the sheep live on. This would make the most out of ones land. This booted peasants off of land which they once lived on. Peasants would tend to relocate into newly formed towns and cities = urban population. They now have to find a way to support themselves.. They can no longer live off the land. They must sell their labour for money. Free Market Institutions must be established to ensure that social relations allow the economy to function. In feudal times, market questions (how much to produce/sell) fell on feudal obligations (how much did people owe to the vassals/monarchy/church). In a free market, all economic decisions are made by the market alone (how much to produce, where to produce, etc). For a free market to exist, certain social institutions need to be in place. Social institutions that would allow a free market to function properly. Technology Travel, manufacturing, communication.. Goods, products can be delivered from far nations.. The invention of the printing press, which allowed people to communicate with each other about goods and demands with people in distant countries.. The printing press was also responsible for the rise of global literacy rates. SEEKING SOCIAL ORDER AMONG INSTABILITY French Revolution - The bourgeois were energized but intellectual, literary, and artistic purposes - they were also energized by the though of a constitution that made their interests "public" - they were a new economic social group - this was a group trying to fight the order of feudal times. - they wanted equality, maternity, and liberty - seeked a particular right to property - the freedom of property becomes a universal desire - there was a need to legitimate the existence and probliem of inequality. The feudal explanation for inequality is constantly being broken down. overworked populace, child labour, and poor housing and sanitary conditions existed for many. - there is massive social instability. people living in disease prone conditions. civil outrage was occuring. Social differentiation - Social differences were highly visible TOCQUEVILLE: DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA Why is America democratic? - Unique geography - Lack of hsitorical classes What does democracy imply? - Right to property - No great classes What are the possible consequences of democracy? - Tyranny of the majority - Despotism - rule by absolute authority. (group or individual or state) - Individualism Tocqueville compares aristocratic France to democratic America. He wants to know why America is democratic. The nature of inheritance in America is different than aristocratic France. More specifically, there is a certain lack of inheritance in America, in particular to land ownership. This breaks down the historical family ownership of land. Historically, America lacks great historical classes of landowners/peasantry/monarchy. People don't identify themselves in a specific class in America as they do in
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