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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Ethnic and Racial Inequality.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 4: Racial and Ethnic Inequalities Slide 1. Ethnic and Racial conflicts still explode around the world Slide 2. A reminder: Habits of Inequality Theory a. Look for SNPNS in Reading Sociology Slide 3. Differentiation and Orientalism a. Edward Said  political theorist i. Felt anger as a Palestinian ii. Talks about orientalism referring to Middle East iii. Western ppl have fantasies about Middle Eastern people Slide 4. The Oriental is "The Other" a. Westerners see the Orient (incl. Middle East) as separate, eccentric, backward b. Westerners think Oriental women are for entertainment  sexualized, fantasized imagery Slide 5. "The Oriental" is strange a. The entire middle east, despite the numerous, diverse cultures, is generalized as one Slide 6. Perhaps the imagery of the oriental harm is key a. There is a chill of sexual energy between ethnic and racial difference Slide 7. Stereotyping reveals Western prejudice a. Thought that the Orientals are not like us  therefore, screw em b. Dehumanize the enemy Slide 8. Mythologies (ex. Orientalism) support inequality Slide 9. What is the intended "meaning" of this cover? Slide 10. Sexual fantasies play a part in racialization a. The anxieties of the attractiveness of black men to white women Slide 11. Racialization a. Physical differences are socially imagined/constructed b. Racialization focuses on something calling it "really important" and then acting on that focus Slide 12. Ethno-racial differences may reflect economic inequalities a. Overlap between racial/ethnic background and economic status b. In Canada, very mixed group of races with very mixed experiences in classes Slide 13. Defining race and ethnic group a. Race: set of people with physical or genetic characteristics that are deemed to produce identifiable differences in appearances b. Ethnic group: set of people who consider themselves to share common characteristics that distinguish them from other groups in a society i. Ex. Polish-Canadians: a group of Canadian people who share common heritage (may/may not speak Polish / lived in Poland) ii. They have a set of values which brings them together, makes them more likely to live together than with a, say, Spanish person iii. Ethnicities are all imaginary, what people say their ethnicity is is what they want you to take them for iv. Social constructions created for a purpose  but what though? Slide 14. Survival of ethnic groups a. A Polish person in Poland is not ethnic, a Poland person is Canada IS b. Some groups have not succeed in creating communities that would enable ethnic identity to survive c. Why do different groups make different efforts with different success in making groups / NOT making groups Slide 15. Ethnic groups are imagined communities a. Why would they WANT to perform this difference between themselves? Slide 16. Totems and communal imagination a. Durkheim i. Found that every tribe had a totem which was an important ritual object to which they prayed upon, etc ii. It gives people something to share as an object of veneration Slide 17. Cultural (totemic) objects have different meanings for different groups a. Bohdan Chmielnicki i. Seen as a hero to Ukrainians ii. Seen as a mass murder of Jewish iii. On group's hero is another group's villain Slide 18. Ethnic communities create and preserve boundaries a. Way of dress can be a way of creating identity b. Characteristic, limited interaction patterns  choosing friends within the group Slide 19. Ethnic groups compete with other ethnic groups a. Band together to amass power against other group to promote collective interest and interests opposing other groups b. Like classes  pursuing a goal to be shared with other members of the group Slide 20. The link between ethnicity and class a. JOHN PORTER – The Vertical Mosaic i. Canada is a vertical mosaic: hierarchical (class inequality) and ethnically unassimilated ii. Not like the American melting pot idea  pressure for foreigners to become "American" iii. He says the Canadian Elite were dominated by White Anglo-Saxon Protestant  disproportionately Scottish iv. Like a mosaic  close together but not actually touching; lock people into class position and lifestyle that the incoming immigrants were admitted into Canada under  locked into entrance status v. So little social mobility that people get locked into social classes and occupations vi. They preserve the hierarchy that is associated with ethnicity vii. Stupid because people who are immigrating are very capable and very ambitions viii. We make it difficult for people to assimilate, get a higher edu
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