SOC366H1 Lecture Notes - Nuclear Family, Arlie Russell Hochschild, Vale Limited

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31 Jan 2013
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Women and Work Lecture
January 23, 2013
Gender, Money and Power in the Private Sphere
Gender/money power: how employment and resources affect the
gendered division of labour
How does sociology take these conceptual models and ideas and
test them?
Trends in household division of labour and how can we use these
to project what is going to happen in the future
How can housework be divided more equally?
Models for employment/household division of labour
Relative resources model: have two key components: take an
exchange-based perspective and dependency [who has power?]
oHypothesis: as women’s employment resources rise, they
will do less housework- more money they make, the less
housework they do
oMoney = power; more money means you are less
dependent on your spouse and you can bargain more on
the division of housework
oThis model would say that because women earn less then
men, they do more housework [bring less to the table,
have less power and thus do more housework in exchange]
oThis is an economic model based on calculating the
resources and a rational negotiation
Time availability model: economic sphere about the rational
individual and calculating your time [input/output] but the focus
is how much time you have because time is a finite resource
oDraws on human capital theory is being applied to explain
why women do more housework
oBecker: time and effort are the elements of the human
capital. He argues that time and energy are finite
resources because you only have so much energy and
time. He argues that both paid work and childcare require
enormous amounts of energy and because it is an
exchange, you get more “bang for your buck” if you
specialize in one sphere [cypher your energy into one
sphere rather than split it up into numerous spheres].
Women should spend their energy and time devoted to
housework than paid work [says this because it maximizes
whatever works more for the household because you have
two individuals specializing in different spheres aka men
and women]. It is a choice model so women choose to
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