•4 questions, answer 3 questions
•Can use point form
•Not responsible for Marie Corsiano
•If can’t get through on police powers, still responsible for the reading
components for today’s class
•Everything contained on the slide you were forwarded, dealing with
•Topics: question on every topic we looked at
1)Political Era (Traditional Policing)
2)Professional Era (Reform Era)
•Talked about some of the problems, and shortcomings a shift to a third
•3) Community Policing (1980s --- ? )
osome debate in the literature or have we moved beyond
oTension –only reason for the hesitancy has to do with the shift of
policing that takes place after the attack of New York after 911,
there was been such suspicion with regard to the role of the
oWhen we know that in some jurisdictions—police officers was for
oKey tenants of community policing:
Require police officers to work closely with community
agents to help coproduce security, order is understood as
coproduction of community safety and security.
The law is still utilizes the law as the key form of
legitimizing activity. All still about the criminal code—
just as it during the professional era, what happens is
that police realize need more local people-coming from
Great similarity: return of police officers back into the
community-the political era. Very high profile.
Realization dawns that the police needs to get back into
the community; deploy back into the community era.
Distinct shift away from reactive policing.
See the return of the beat officer, see the police officer
riding on bicycles-being nice to the neighbourhood.
Having the police officer active in all community affairs.
Very active in things like fundraising affairs, sponsor a lot
of after school programs, crime prevention programs,
things like neighbourhood watches, etc.
Police officer has to be understood as a “STAKE
The notion that police officers are like any one of us—
police officers like us, we all have a stake in prevention,
we all have a stake in zoning laws, business law, very
active in the community. In terms of our stake we are all
complicit. In terms of organization, this is increased
decentralization, we see this in this model increased
decentralized, we see police officers dispersed in local
settings; also the reemergence of foot patrols. Not based
away two way communication radio-still elements of that,
not the focus.
Proactive type of policing****
Have to be resocialized in this role, but also of the police
Community policing is the dominant for late modern
policing; not only true for Canada.
Are we at the end of the era? –talk about this in later
•Summarize Three Eras:
•1) Political Era:
oclearly problematic, very close to the people they police; this is
fabulous, may be successful in terms of crime prevention
intiatives, the system was quite rife with corruption and became
ineffective. Also the way the system was set up made it easy for
individuals to target groups they do not like by the police; the
groups the police does not like does not change from era to era.
•2) Professional Era:
oGreat improvement from terms of training and coverage. The
police were able to cover more terrain because of technological
innovation. Also, benefited in terms of independence; during the
professional era, they become professionalized.
oIn terms of effectiveness; great concerns emerged particularly
concerns over the success and outcome when you are utilizing a
almost reactive policing: major issues.
•3) Community Policing:
oFull service personalized policing
oPolice and public work in partnership; not to solve problems but
to identify problems.
oIn terms of effectiveness of community policing; where has been
tried and implemented in a way that captures the essence of
community policing has shown success and promising results.
Deploy police officers very visible in the community; public
perception of safety, and here it is shown to have a lot of effect,
notable effect on things like fear of crime. Some groups like
community policing; some don’t like it, and some say community
policing---more targed on certain communities so don’t like it.
People talk about satisfaction, much more confident.
oJUST SUMMARIZED POLICE HISTORY
•Robert RHINER, and PETER Wannigton—given us insights—almost
in terms of police culture* look at the article
Police work and culture:
•We have some good data in this area.
•Police effectiveness, oversight mechanisms, we have good research.
•What does policing actually look like?
•We know from research 98% of all police budgets are dedicated for
•Of the budget that is actually allocated to police work, 60% of the
remaining budget gets spent on patrol work. ---this includes criminal
investigation and traffic work.
•Patrol work: meant to control crime, meant to maintain order, and this
is usually very typically done in uniform.
•Pre 1990s, almost exclusively in cars. No longer based on automobile
•This patrolling: reactive or proactive.
•If you’re going to control in automobile; than going to call it reactive.
•If you do it on foot, much about proactive.
•We see a lot of patrol studies and is based on enthnographic research.
Research gets together with the police and observe from the shift.
What we know from the literature from the 60s and 70s, lots of
information about the police officers.
•Only a small portion of what police officers actually do are crime
•The great majority have very little to do with crime, depending on a
particular study, only between 10 to 25 percent of all calls to the police
had something to do with crime.
•Changed somewhat in the 1990s—has suggested that a growing
proportion of calls coming into the police are crime related calls,
particularly in urban areas.
4 questions, answer 3 questions, can use point form, not responsible for marie corsiano. If can"t get through on police powers, still responsible for the reading components for today"s class: everything contained on the slide you were forwarded, dealing with police powers, topics: question on every topic we looked at. require police officers to work closely with community agents to help coproduce security, order is understood as coproduction of community safety and security. the law is still utilizes the law as the key form of legitimizing activity. All still about the criminal code just as it during the professional era, what happens is that police realize need more local people-coming from criminal code. great similarity: return of police officers back into the community-the political era. realization dawns that the police needs to get back into the community; deploy back into the community era.