Melanoma Lecture 1.doc

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 4461B
Geordie Shepherd

LP Lecture 1: Introduction to Melanoma Skin Cancer - most common cancer is Canada • 2 Categories Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer • • Includes basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer Most common • • Cancer of the kertinocyte • Melanoma • Less common but more fatal • Cancer of the melanocyte • Incidence rates continue to rise and men and women Risk Factors • Overexposure to artificial UV light (tanning beds) is the primary cause of skin cancer • Other risk factors • Light skin, eyes or hair • Skin that burns or freckles easily and tans poorly • Personal history of skin cancer • Strong family history of skin cancer • Having many moles • Sun exposure Integumentary System • Largest organ; 15-20% of mass • Major functions • Barrier • Immunologic • Homeostasis • Sensory Endocrine • • Excretion Vitamin Production • • 2 layers separated by a basement membrane Epidermis • • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium • Derived from ectoderm • Avascular • 4 major layers 1. Stratum Basale • Mitotic stem cells that become keratinocytes • Single layer • Rests on basement membrane (basal lamina) • Often contains pigment • Small basophilic cells • Attached to each other and keratinocytes and to the basement membrane • Location of melanocytes 2. Stratum Spinosum • Appearance of inter-cellular cytoplasmic processes or spines • Several cells thick • Increase in size and become flattened as they mature 3. Stratum Granulosum • Contains numerous granules • Apoptotic morphology • 1-3 cells thick • Contains keratohyalin granules 4. Stratum Corneum • Flattened, anucleate, keratinized cells 5. Stratum Lucidum • In thick skin • Dermis • Dense connective tissue
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