Objectives: distinguish between phonemes and allophones, understand different types of phonological distribution. Phonology: abstract aspect of grammar, competence - a speaker"s interpretation system, phonology studies this interpretation system and investigates the principles governing the sound systems. How to identify a phoneme: minimal pair test - two words are identical in all respects, except for one segment. In other words - contrast in identical environments, create a different in meaning. Minimal pairs: two words have different meanings, the words have the same number of sounds, only one sound is different, the sound that is different is in the same place in both words. Allophones: allophones - the different realizations of a phoneme. /p/ has at least 3 different realization in english. Complementary distribution: two (or more) sounds are in complementary distribution if they occur in mutually exclusive environments. Phonetic similarity: only sounds phonetically similar can be allophone of the same phenome.