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Linguistic Anthropology Notes 2012.docx
Linguistic Anthropology Notes 2012.docx

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Western University
Anthropology 1020E
Karen Pennesi

1020E Linguistic Anthropology 2012 Entire Terms NotesMain Ideas 1 Language is unique to humans 2 Language has developed alone with evolution as a species 3 Language is essential to out development of knowledge technology society and survival Communication vs Language ex The dance of the honeybee p8991 All animals use communicationIt is very limited Only humans have language Design features of language p101105 Vocalauditory channelcan just talk while other things would disadvantage this move Duality of patterningPutting sounds together to get words with meaningsFinite number of meaningless sounds gives way to an infinite number of wordsmeanings Productivity Displacementnot in our immediate contextPast possibilities memories future not real Reflexivenesscan talk about out own language with our language Human characteristics related to evolution of language 23 million years agoBipedalismUse of toolsBrain size increasedPerformance for vocalauditory channel 5000070000 years agoDuality of patterningInvention of symbolsProductivity can talk about anythingSyntax sentence structurePolygenesis merging different ways of languages at different times Mark PagelHow has language transformed society video319 Human capacity for social learning gave us an advantage over other species Language evolved us to solve the crisis of visual theft Language is a piece of social technology for enhancing the benefits of cooperation What is unique about human language Not all language is verbal or oral Human language uses a combination of verbal and nonverbal communicationGestures1020E Linguistic Anthropology 2012PostureFacial expressionsNonverbal types Human communicative gestures that are independent of culture and language universal Not learned havent been socialized yet Scream cry and cough Gestures and vocalizations that are culturally and linguistically variableLearned and quotable VerbalParalanguage goes around the languagemodificationhow you say itVolumePitchSpeedTone of voiceVoice quality breathy strong bold weakCombining verbal and nonverbal communication Lying and lie detectorhow can you tellPaul Ekman studies micro expressions If nonverbal and verbal communications do not matchlyingLanguage Acquisition Main ideas 1 Humans are the only species to acquire language 2 All healthynormal humans acquire at least one language effortlesslySign Languages Who uses sign languageDeaf and impaired and those that want to talk to themChimpsPeople in loud places Sign languages are full languages with the same design features of oral languageHand shape direction positions movementwordsHas its own type of grammarChange over timeVaries by age and placeFacial expressions are crucialLanguageHow do humans learn to speakIs language acquisition innate or dependant on the social environmentWhat are the connections between cognitive ability and linguistic abilityWhat does it mean to know a languageRecall Washoe the chimp with sign language and Genie the wild childConnection between cognitive and linguistic ability
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