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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Part 2 – Pre Clovis America

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Anthropology 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

Lecture 2 Part 2 – Pre Clovis America Pre-Clovis Evidence  North of the Ice Sheets o No ice barriers for people moving in to the area o Could have been in these areas fairly early o Barrier for people moving in would have been the climate (very cold) no the ice itself (Duvanny Yar Interval) o Very few large land mammals, could have been very rich in marine life o Evidence for people living in Siberia about 30,000 BP, in northeastern Siberia (Yana Site) dated to 27,000 BP  Number of sites in Siberia that date between 20,000–14,000 BP  Siberdik –dated to 15,000 BP  Ushki – dated to 14,000 BP (pit-houses, burial sites, etc.)  Dyuktai – artifacts similar to the earliest sites in Alaska o Upper Paleolithic (Important Evidence)  1. Bifaces – made by pressure flaking  2. Blades – specialized forms of flakes, remove flakes that are exactly the same shape all around, long, narrow points (at least 2x long as it is wide), parallel sided, long parallel scars  3. Burins – used for carving  * All require a great deal of skill*  Microblades – made from wedge-shaped cores, very small  Alaska o Most discoveries found in the past 20-30 years o Nenana Complex  Based on series of sites in Nenana River Valley  First site reported in 1973, people still excavating there  Walker Road Site  80cm deep into soil, under windblown deposits  Approximately 11,820 – 11,010 BP (old as or older then Clovis)  **Broken Mammoth**  1990  Oldest layer – Cultural Zone IV  6 radiocarbon dates on charcoal dates to 11,000 – 11,800 BP (Pre-Clovis)  Very similar artifacts/tools (bifacial, fairly distinctive), definite blade industry, called Chindadan Points  Also found end-scrapers – hide working tools  Also found gravers, perhaps tattooing blades, etc., not certain but they made many of them  Hunted bison, elk, caribou, waterfowl, fish  Some organic artifacts for a spear thrower (made of bone and mammoth ivory, scavenged from old carcasses) o Denali Complex/Paleoarctic Tradition  Always found above the Nenana Complex (stratigraphy) – 10,500 BP at the earliest
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