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Lesson 9 Lecture Notes

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2800A/B
David Lamari

More Greek Nouns Words with Multiple Forms of the Stem • Most verbs and adjectives have only one form. A number of them have multiple forms. ◦ ex. aner, andros > andr- meaning man ◦ ex. gyne, gynaikos > gyn-, gynec- meaning woman ◦ ex. fos, fotos > phos-, phot-, meaning light Greek Prefixes: Assimilation • A lot of Greek prefixes end in a vowel - when a prefix ended in a vowel and the following stem began with a vowel or "h", the final vowel of the prefix often dropped off ◦ ex. ap-helion ◦ ex. a-theist - not or without God • A final consonant of a prefix usually assimilated to an initial consonant of the following stem. ◦ ex. Syn-onymous ◦ ex. Sym-metry ◦ ex. Sym-phony ◦ ex. Apo-cryphal Hybrids • Have some Greek parts and some Latin parts - these are not at all common. ◦ ex. Television - Tele > G. far away, vis. > L. see, ion > L. act of ◦ ex. Automobile - Auto > G. itself, mobile > L. moving. ◦ ex. Petroleum ◦ Pedophile - Ped- > G. child, phile - excessively fond however Ped- could also be L. for foot. Suffix -ine, -in • L. -ine is often attached to animals and is from L. inus, ex. feline • In Greek, this tends to create chemical compounds ex. toxin • It is often attached to Latin and Greek stems ◦ ex. Insulin is L. for pertaining to islands ◦ Penicillin - ill means little, peni is penis ◦ Ex. Chlorine ◦ Ex. Cocaine ◦ Ex. Margarin Greek Combining Forms: • -oeidos -o- + eidos (idol): "resembling, form, shape, appearance" ◦ ex. asteroid ◦ ex. helicoid • Combining forms < G. graph- (to write) ◦ ex. Telegraph, polygraph, seismograph, autograph, photograph ◦ -graphy (process of writing) - geography, historiography, stenography, calligraphy ◦ -gram (something written) - telegram • Combining forms < G. path (suffering/feeling; disease), cf. pati/pass feel or endure ◦ sympathy - feel with someone ◦ telepathy - ability to feel something from far away ◦ pathogen - something that breeds disease ◦ pathology - study of disease ◦ pathetic - ic is pertaining to, path is feeling Noun-suffix -ism • the action of a verb ending in -ize - typical conduct or condition, system or principle, peculiarity of manner or language, morbid condition ◦ ex. feminism, baptism, alchoholism, americanism, patriotism Semantic Change • Expedite - ite means to make, ped -foot, ex - out make foot get out of the way • Daisy - contraction of day's eye - kind of looks like the sun which is the day's eye • Leave them as naked as the vulgar air (King John) as in "common" air Obsole
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