History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Couthon, Sans-Culottes

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Published on 16 Jan 2018
Department
History Lecture #13: The Terror Oct 28
I) Fall of the Monarchy First Republic (21 Sept 1792)
Very difficult to end a revolution, hard to create stability after
creating powerful momentum of change
Number of countries became part of first coalition
War was declared early April, by the summer French armies were
retreating
Foreign armies started entering French territory from the north-
east, major challenge for stability in France
Result of these was that tensions exploded in Paris first
o Popular attack on the royal palace, on the royal family first
o Managed to escape and took refuge with national assembly
o National assembly felt it had to put itself in front to gain
control and movement
A new assembly was elected was called the convention, more
radical than previous assemblies
Will to break with the past was to try the king for treason
II) War and Terror (1792- July 1794)
Louis XVI guillotined, Jan 1793
o New regime of first French republic, managed to survive
foreign attacks and counter revolutions from within
(internal and external)
o Survived at a cost, had to turn itself in a very brutal regime
(regime of terror)
o Number of layers at work within the terror, machine of
government, designed t mobilize all the energy’s of the
country to win the war
o Mends the drafting of huge number of conscripts
o Focusing of all economic and financial resources
o Emerging nationalists, soldiers fought for nation now,
not for king
o This effort was successful, coalition is often a desperate
measure but it worked
o Battle marked the opening of much more brutal warfare
(War of Valmy) grew in scale, intensity, so on
o Second role of terror was to eradicate the counter
revolution, soon turns to very uprisings
Counter revolution wanted to bring down republic
These people came from ranks of the nobility,
wanted old regime back
Opposed to what has been happening to the church
People opposed to conscription
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