History 1601E Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Kublai Khan, Central Asia, Habituation

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October 22, 2019
HIS1601E LECTURE 8- YUAN CHINA
Mongols:
- were nomadic, moved between winter and summer pasture lands
- were not able to store food and therefore at the mercy of nature
- Lifestyle was far more precarious than those of the Chinese
- Habitually invaded northern China for resources, particularly if the weather was bad
- Their rise had much to do with the leadership of Genghis Khan
- under him and his descendants the Mongols were able to take over much of central
Asia.
- Habituated to remain on horseback during two days and two nights without dismounting
- Extremely fierce and hardy people.
Genghis Khan:
- unifies the Mongol tribes of the northern steppe in 2016
North China falls to the Mongols in 1234:
- Excellent archers, horsemen and open to new military technologies
- Always willing to accept innovation.
The Song and the Yangtze River
- Song counted on river to protect them as it had traditionally done
- Yet because the Mongols were willing to accept new forms of military tech, they were
able to find a way around this.
Southern Song Falls 1279:
- marks the first time that all of China falls to foreign rule
Khublai Khan:
- takes the title of Emperor of China and establishes the Yuan Dynasty
Population demographics:
- Mongols are great warriors, yet the don’t make up much of the population
Mongols: 1.4 million
Chinese: 87 million in 1252, 67 million in 1381
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