Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Kidney Disease, Densitometry, Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Chapter 6: Exercise for Health and Fitness
The Benefits of Exercise
Scientists have studied the effects exercise on health and functioning for the past 40 years-
Found to be the most important action you can take to improve wellness, impact of disease,
energy levels, immune function and emotional well-being If you exercise you decrease
the likelihood of contracting a disease or lower your chance of dying from diseases, Reduced
Risk of Heart Disease:
Regular exercise strengthens the heart and enables it to work more efficiently
Improved Bone Health:
Regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density of bone
Implications for osteoporosis
Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joints
Implications for osteoarthritis
More efficient metabolism:
Physically fit person better able to generate energy and regulate hormones
Protect against free radical damage:
Produced during normal metabolic process
Activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent free radical damage and maintain health
of body cells
The Benefits of Exercise
Improved body composition:
Through direct energy expenditure and improving fat mass to fat-free mass ratio
Longevity:
risk of death regardless of body composition
People who exercise are lesslikely to die from all causes than sedentary people
Psychological and Emotional Wellness
People who are physically active experience many social, psychological and emotional benefits
decrease in stress, anxiety and depression, increase self image, increase learning and
memory, Enjoyment!
Physical Fitness
A set of health or performance-relatedattributes related to the ability to engage in
physical activity
5 components of physical fitness:
1) Cardiorespiratory endurance
2) Muscular strength
3) Muscular endurance
4) Flexibility
5) Body composition
Components of Physical Fitness
1) Cardiorespiratory endurance:
Ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercises
Depends on how well your heart, lungs and circulatory system are working
Activities such as jogging or cycling develop cardio respiratory endurance
develop cardio respiratory endurance
Components of Physical Fitness
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2) Muscular strength:
Amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort
Strong muscles are important for activities of daily living
Developed by weight training and resistance training exercises
Components of Physical Fitness
3) Muscular endurance:
Ability of a muscle group to remain contracted and resist fatigue
Muscular endurance important for postural muscles to hold the spine in the
correct alignmentand strain
Developed through weight training
4) Flexibility: Ability to move joints through full range of motion
Stretching exercises andactivities such as yogacan help minimize stiffnessand maintain
optional range of motion
5) Body composition:
Proportion of fat to fat-free mass in the body
Healthy body composition involves proportion of fat-free mass and
acceptably level of body fat
A person with body fat is more likely to experience a variety of health
problems
Disease Prevention and Management: Cardiovascular disease
A leading cause of death in Canada
Places burden on individuals, families and healthcare system
A sedentary lifestyle is one of the six major risk factors for CVD
Physical inactivity risk of CVD by 50-240%
Other risk factors for CVD: smoking, unhealthy cholesterol levels. blood pressure,
diabetes and obesity
RecentStats(HeartandStrokeFoundation,2006):
Alarming in obesity, particularly among children, in smoking rates, placing Canada as a
world leader in tobacco control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk among lower income and
First Nations populations
How can we best prevent the ill effects of CVD?
Improved cardiorespiratory endurance through aerobic exercise!
Numerous studies have confirmed the protective effects of exercise on the
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): Management: Cardiac Rehabilitation:
Aims to restore individuals who have suffered a myocardial infarction (i.e., heart attack) to
optimal health
Achieved through either an exercise only program or a comprehensive
program
Research shows that individuals who participate in exercise-based cardiac
rehabilitation have significantly decreased mortality compared to those receiving
conventional care
Cancer
Some studies show relationship between physical activity and risk for all types of
cancer
Strong evidence to suggest that regular exercise colon cancer
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Document Summary

Scientists have studied the effects exercise on health and functioning for the past 40 years- Found to be the most important action you can take to improve wellness, impact of disease, Energy levels, immune function and emotional well-being if you exercise you decrease the likelihood of contracting a disease or lower your chance of dying from diseases, reduced. Regular exercise strengthens the heart and enables it to work more efficiently: improved bone health: Regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density of bone: implications for osteoporosis. Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joints: implications for osteoarthritis, more efficient metabolism, protect against free radical damage: Physically fit person better able to generate energy and regulate hormones. Activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent free radical damage and maintain health of body cells. The benefits of exercise: improved body composition: Through direct energy expenditure and improving fat mass to fat-free mass ratio: longevity:

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