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Sport Psych Lectures 1.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Sport Psych Lecture 1- Sept 7th Consider how psychological factors affect an individuals physical performance in sport/exercise. How participation in sport/exercise effects an individuals psych dev. Comprehensive Objective - Understating thru explanation and predictions of the behaviour and performance of individuals or groups in sport/exercise - Behaviour is unique way of responding to all stimuli - Performance is goal directed behaviour for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task Orientations to sport psych - Behavioral: out look of the athlete - Psychophysiological: study of psych responses to activity - Cognitive-behavioural: behaviour determined by ones interpretation of both environment and thoughts Professional Approaches: - Clinical counselling; eating disorder - Crisis intervention; slump busting - Psychological assessment - Performance enhancement - Consultation and program development - Prevention and treatment of injuries Sport Psychologist vs consultant Sport Psychology - If we want to understand human behaviour and performance in sport/exercise, how do we go about studying them and what factors should be included in the study, visual, auditory, experimental Kolb's Learning Cycle 1 Concrete; experience (CE) actual - feeling 2 Reflective Observation (RO) watching what happened 3 Abstract Conceptualizations (AC) making sense 4 Active Experimentation (AE) try it new Ex class, intro to classmate, what do you think about class, want to go over it at ucc after, make sense of how to do what you need to do, coffee again with new person, tweaking prior problems. th Lecture 2- Sept 10 - Difference between performance and behavior, behavior is the mental side affecting physical performance, certain stimuli for each athlete ex. Rain, mud, sun. - Scientific method/experiments, find conclusion "I believe statement" - Systematic observation how someone performs then integrate it to performance - Single case study, learning knowledge from 1 person - Shared public experience, talking to people about it - Introspections (thoughts/feelings) info on how to perform best ourselves - Intuition (tacit knowledge) just seems logic is the right way, where the car's parked Ways of Knowing - Any systematic study of sport psych should include the following stages 1 Observations & Description - Id of define the essential characteristics 2 Explanation & Analysis (why?) - Attempt to provide reason for findings in 1 3 Prediction (what will be) - Use knowledge obtain to predict future occurrences 4 Control (how can we) - What can you control to change behavior or performance? Scientific Method - Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias are detached observes and manipulates of nature - it is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical and, critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience 1. Formation of a specific hypothesis 2. Design of the investigation 3. Accumulation of data 4. Classification of data 5. Development of generalization 6. Verification of results - These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid internal data that can be then used to develop generalizable theories and last of human behaviour - However, this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity (practicality) Professional Practice Knowledge Holistic and Experiential - Guided trial/error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors ex rituals - It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias (different experiences for different people) - Central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing ex. Watching the running back but not the blockers Tacit Knowledge A process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning Subsidiary awareness - Of certain clues we know more than we can tell it just seems logic the unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies Ex. Case studies, clinical reports, in-depth interviews, introspective reports (diary/journal), participant observations (last play of the game losing, selfish performances earlier, but why did you do it?), shared experiences You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and intuition. Lecture 3- Sept 12 th Motivation From the Latin movere = to move - A theoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon) Is used to account for the: 1. Selection 2. Intensity 3. Persistence Of behavior, learning or performance in any activity. Motivation fighting as the source of involvement and intensity. - The direction (approach/avoid) - Intensity (high/low) - Ones effort - Participant oriented/Situation orientedInteraction of both make up individual motivation Some motivational factors can be easily changed (goal-setting, reinforcement, attribution, self-confidence) while others are more difficult to influence (presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention). Guidelines: 1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants. 2. It is important for a leader and the participant to understand what motivates and individual, multiple motives, competing motives, shared/unique motives (team based, but also individuals have own goals), motives change over time. 3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation (different jogging route). 4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style) STRONG. 5. Undesirable motives can be changed through Behaviour Modification techniques. Token Rewards as Motivators Reward: THINGS used to modify or manipulate behavior- material rewards. Reinforcement: Personal interactions, verbal and non- verbal Token Reward: Behaviour Modification, Operant Conditioning, And Token Economies. Contingency: Relationship between a behavior and its consequence Contingency Management: The regulation of behavior by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes. Examples of token rewards: medals, trophies, money, media, food, freedom, love, stars/decals, free time, recognition, privileges. Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated through the use of token rewards. Ex pg 135/136 - Attendance board (public). - Group competition (intensity). Desirable behaviors can be enhanced through use of token rewards. Token rewards have a spill over effect on non-target behaviors. Satisfaction and enjoyment, attendance and promptness, interest and attitudes, conformance to rules (swearing), social interaction (coach/ath), statements of approval (less complaining). Token rewards can be used to enhance individual skills and/or task performance, not just behavior changes.
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