Sport Psych Lecture 1- Sept 7th
Consider how psychological factors affect an individuals physical performance in
sport/exercise. How participation in sport/exercise effects an individuals psych
- Understating thru explanation and predictions of the behaviour and
performance of individuals or groups in sport/exercise
- Behaviour is unique way of responding to all stimuli
- Performance is goal directed behaviour for the purpose of short-term
execution of a discrete task
Orientations to sport psych
- Behavioral: out look of the athlete
- Psychophysiological: study of psych responses to activity
- Cognitive-behavioural: behaviour determined by ones interpretation of both
environment and thoughts
- Clinical counselling; eating disorder
- Crisis intervention; slump busting
- Psychological assessment
- Performance enhancement
- Consultation and program development
- Prevention and treatment of injuries
Sport Psychologist vs consultant
- If we want to understand human behaviour and performance in
sport/exercise, how do we go about studying them and what factors
should be included in the study, visual, auditory, experimental
Kolb's Learning Cycle
1 Concrete; experience (CE) actual - feeling
2 Reflective Observation (RO) watching what happened
3 Abstract Conceptualizations (AC) making sense
4 Active Experimentation (AE) try it new
Ex class, intro to classmate, what do you think about class, want to go over it at
ucc after, make sense of how to do what you need to do, coffee again with new
person, tweaking prior problems.
Lecture 2- Sept 10 - Difference between performance and behavior, behavior is the mental
side affecting physical performance, certain stimuli for each athlete ex.
Rain, mud, sun.
- Scientific method/experiments, find conclusion "I believe statement"
- Systematic observation how someone performs then integrate it to
- Single case study, learning knowledge from 1 person
- Shared public experience, talking to people about it
- Introspections (thoughts/feelings) info on how to perform best ourselves
- Intuition (tacit knowledge) just seems logic is the right way, where the car's
Ways of Knowing
- Any systematic study of sport psych should include the following stages
1 Observations & Description
- Id of define the essential characteristics
2 Explanation & Analysis (why?)
- Attempt to provide reason for findings in 1
3 Prediction (what will be)
- Use knowledge obtain to predict future occurrences
4 Control (how can we)
- What can you control to change behavior or performance?
- Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias are detached
observes and manipulates of nature
- it is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled,
empirical and, critical filtering of knowledge acquired through
1. Formation of a specific hypothesis
2. Design of the investigation
3. Accumulation of data
4. Classification of data
5. Development of generalization
6. Verification of results
- These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid
internal data that can be then used to develop generalizable theories and
last of human behaviour - However, this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks
external validity (practicality)
Professional Practice Knowledge
Holistic and Experiential
- Guided trial/error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors
- It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and
susceptible to bias (different experiences for different people)
- Central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing
ex. Watching the running back but not the blockers
A process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning
- Of certain clues we know more than we can tell it just seems logic the
unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies
Ex. Case studies, clinical reports, in-depth interviews, introspective reports
(diary/journal), participant observations (last play of the game losing, selfish
performances earlier, but why did you do it?), shared experiences
You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience
and temper these with your own insights and intuition.
Lecture 3- Sept 12 th
From the Latin movere = to move
- A theoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon)
Is used to account for the:
Of behavior, learning or performance in any activity. Motivation fighting as the
source of involvement and intensity.
- The direction (approach/avoid)
- Intensity (high/low)
- Ones effort - Participant oriented/Situation orientedInteraction of both make up
Some motivational factors can be easily changed (goal-setting, reinforcement,
attribution, self-confidence) while others are more difficult to influence
(presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention).
1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants.
2. It is important for a leader and the participant to understand what
motivates and individual, multiple motives, competing motives,
shared/unique motives (team based, but also individuals have own goals),
motives change over time.
3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation (different
4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the
participants (coaching style) STRONG.
5. Undesirable motives can be changed through Behaviour Modification
Token Rewards as Motivators
Reward: THINGS used to modify or manipulate behavior- material rewards.
Reinforcement: Personal interactions, verbal and non- verbal
Token Reward: Behaviour Modification, Operant Conditioning, And Token
Contingency: Relationship between a behavior and its consequence
Contingency Management: The regulation of behavior by use of tokens to
influence or alter outcomes.
Examples of token rewards: medals, trophies, money, media, food, freedom,
love, stars/decals, free time, recognition, privileges.
Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated through the use of token rewards.
Ex pg 135/136
- Attendance board (public).
- Group competition (intensity).
Desirable behaviors can be enhanced through use of token rewards.
Token rewards have a spill over effect on non-target behaviors. Satisfaction
and enjoyment, attendance and promptness, interest and attitudes,
conformance to rules (swearing), social interaction (coach/ath), statements of
approval (less complaining).
Token rewards can be used to enhance individual skills and/or task
performance, not just behavior changes.