Radio and Canadian Recording Industry
- Slide 2: CDN/US Content
- production values higher with US content. It just seemed “to flow better” than
- Most of the public affairs programming was Canadian by late fifties, but most of the
comedies and dramas were American.
- Slide 3: CDN Content Regulation (1960)
- 55% of airtime for broadcasters in Canada has to be Canadian programming.
- This seems great, most of our viewing should be Canadian. But this isn’t taking into
account that most people watch TV in the evenings. So most of viewership would watch
American programming still.
- They started creating cheap Canadian shows, especially game shows like Let’s Make a
Deal, in order to fulfill this requirement.
-“imports cost less and earn more” Cheaper to buy the licensing rights for American
show instead of producing your own show, plus the viewership tends to be higher for
American show so you can charge more in advertising. Economic formula that makes
sense; they’re not anti-Canadian, they just know that it makes more sense to not
produce Canadian shows.
- Slide 4: Canadian Content Regulation Today
- Content requirements have increased to 60% and 50% of airtime from 6pm-midnight
must be Canadian.
- Problem with this?
- They start fulfilling this requirement with News (News at 6pm, news at 11pm), election
- CDN shows are based on the national origin of the production team, solely. CDN shows
don’t have to be ‘set’ in Canada. As long as the producer and 75% of the postproduction
is shot/funded in Canada, it can be called a “Canadian” show. In addition to this you
need 6 points: CDN director = 2 points, screenwriter = 2 points, CDN highest paid
actor = 1 point, etc.
- It’s about the nationality, not the content.
- Specialty channels have different types of licensing arrangements for Canadian content
(MuchMusic is 30% canadian)
- Slide 5: CDN radio eras
- TV messes things up for radio. Radio found it hard to compete with television.
- Slide 6: Radio as Mass Medium 1930’s/40’s
- Slide 7: Challenge of TV, 1950s
- Challenge for radio is that the model for radio listening was often in the evening and
with family members, which TV replaced.
- Radio had to reinvent itself
- A lot of people thought that with TV, the radio would die.
- Obsolete technology today: fax machines. Many people thought that the radio would be
- They moved their advertising from national to local, because the audiences went from
national to local too. Move away from mass audience model to increasing ones of
- Market Segmentation: How Secret deodorant decides right off the bat to exclude
men and market solely to women.
- Radio became local; TV is national
- By transferring to local advertising, it costed less for broadcasters - Slide 8: Radio Adapts
- It realizes that the mixed format model it had before (programming during day for
homemakers, after-school programming for kids, etc) was not working, and moved to
Single format mode of production. It’s either going to be all-talk, or all-music, or all
- It targeted specific groups by using specific formatting.
- Started marketing very much to teenagers which is how rock music became common
- Slide 9: Music Format Radio
- This is a win-win for radio. They get program content for free, and the recording
companies get free promotion of their music.
- As the audiences become local, as the advertising base becomes local, the content is
national or even international music. You aren’t listening to solely London music in
London. The music you hear is not specific to anywhere, it’s mainly American or Global
- Transition from society to segment making media. Trying to attract the same type of
- Slide 10: AM to FM
- AM = amplitude modulation FM = frequency modulation (not on exam)
- In the 60s FM was a rather marginal frequency; 6% of listeners listened to FM stations;
now, ⅔ of radio stations are on FM
- People thought that FM was an oddity, weird station, etc. They thought it might just
- The sound quality is superior on FM so it didn’t. As radio transitioned to mainly music
listening, it made sense for the music to go to FM
- Slide 11: Listening Changes
- Radio executives are able to save themselves, but they also benefit from
suburbanization and car use. The development of mobile listening happens; cars get
built with radio sets built in. You can now listen to the radio outside the house. When
people moved to suburbs, they live further from where they work which means they
need to use the car more which helps out radio.
- Types of jobs that people have by 60s and 70s are different than the ones they had
twenty years ago; more likely to have white collar jobs, and more likely to listen to radio
at work than blue collar jobs.
- Shift from pub