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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B
John Mc Cormick

Notes on the Guest Lecture: If we could go back in time  India separated from Australia  No change in human genome, 150 times larger gene pool of microbes than human So what or who are we?  We are only 10% human, and the rest is pure microbe  The human microbiome contains 1 million+ genes  The human genome contains 23000 genes How can beneficial bacteria influence our health and counter disease?  Bacteria don’t only affect our gut; they affect many parts of our body such as the brain and CNS, joints, skin etc… Microbiome and probiotics will impact Agriculture, Livestock Breeding, and Bioprocessing  The bottom line – estimated $795 billion economic impact  Disease resistant crops, more nutritious produce, biopesiticides etc… Five reasons for wanting to optimize our microbiome 1. Reproduction 2. Breast cancer 3. Diabetes 4. Mental health 5. Heart health Probiotics  Probiotics: live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host  First you identify the strain, then you do a safety assessment and P1 human study, and then a double-blind placebo P2 human trial to determine if the strain is efficacious  True probiotic Reproduction  A urinary tract infection enters the vagina and goes into the blood Vaginal microbiota of pregnant women  You can take a vaginal sample and process the DNA  There are many organisms, with the majority of them being Lactobacillus Overview of predicated differential functions of the vaginal microbiota based on RNA-seq analysis  Unhealthy lactobacilli cause mucin breakdown, malodour, and other short chained fatty acids  inflammatory process in the vagina  We’ve used the same antibiotic for 40 years (stupid) Can probiotics help vaginal and bladder health?  They did an experiment which compared the use of antibiotics and probiotics with women who had urinary tract infections  Antibiotic resistance did not increase lactobacilli  It was proven that the probiotic worked as well: improved cure of bacterial vaginosis and for vulvovaginal candidiasis when taken for 30 days when patient is receiving antimicrobial therapy Lactobacillus  In women undergoing in vitro fertilization, women with bacterial vaginosis will not get pregnant  lactobacilli is critical for you to get pregnant  In women who so conceive and deliver a live birth at term, the vaginal concentration of lactobacilli is much higher than those who have early pregnancy loss  You come from bacteria, so bacteria is critical to every single step of human life Should a woman take probiotic Flora Restore to help get pregnant and stay pregnant?  Maternal diet is important to prevent the risk of the kid developing CVD and diabetes when they are older  Folic acid supplement from an early pregnancy to 3 months post-partum showed enhanced working memory, inhibitory control, and fine motor function  Essential fatty acids (alpha linolenic) are important for brain development Once the baby is born  95% Babies who received the lactobacillus reuteri probiotic drops reduced crying  7% of babies who received simethicone (antibiotic) reduced crying  Therefore, the probiotic is better! Are bacteria present in breast tissue? Why would th
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