Immunology Notes

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Department
Microbiology and Immunology
Course
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Professor
Rodney Dekoter
Semester
Summer

Description
Immunology NotesNov 812 Vaccine strategies The goal is to induce longlasting protective immunity without actually exposing people to disease The vaccine itself must not cause death and it must protect against exposure to live pathogen It must induce neutralizing antibodies to prevent infection of cells that cant be replaced Its effectiveness wont work in everyone Herd immunity means that of 100 people vaccinated 85 develop protective immunity and the other 15 are still protected from these 85 people The vaccine needs to induce an immune response that will result in memory There are several different approaches Live attenuated vaccines Infection with a less dangerous version of the pathogen To attenuate means to render less virulent Viruses are grown in nonhuman cells so that when the virus is put in humans immunity will be induced and the virus will be cleared because the body knows it doesnt belong there The attenuated strain will not be able to replicate in humans Such vaccines are used for polio measles mumps rubella and varicella How it works To produce an attenuated virus it must first be isolated from a patient and then grown in cultured human cells The cultured virus is then used to infect monkey cellsThe virus acquires mutations that allow it to grow well in monkey cellsThe virus no longer grows well in human cells it is attenuated It will produce immunity but not disease and can be used as a vaccine The good things about live attenuated vaccines are they produce strong immune responses The bad things are reversion to a more dangerous form of the virus can occur and they cant be used on immunecompromisedsuppressed children Attenuation can be achieved more rapidly and reliably with recombinant DNA techniques Designer attenuation involves deleting or mutating specific and multiple virulence genes
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