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Philosophy 2801F/G

LEVIATHAN – HOBBES  The right of nature, the preservation of his own nature; that is to say of his own life  A law of nature – general rule, found out by reason by which a man is forbidden to do, that which is destructive of his life, or taketh away that means of preserving the same  The condition of man is a condition of war of everyone against everyone; in which case everyone is governed by his own reason; and there is nothing he can make use of, that may not be a help unto him, in preserving his life against his enemies  Every man has a right to everything even to any man  That every man ought to endeavour peace  Fundamental law of nature seek peace and follow it  Second nature by all means we can to defend ourselves  That a man be willing when others are so too, as far-forth as for peace and defence of himself he shall think it necessary to lay down this right to all things, and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself  Whatsoever you require that others should do to you, that do ye to them  There is nothing to which every man had not right to nature  Right is laid aside, either by simply renouncing it or by transferring it to another. By simply renouncing when he cares not to whom the benefit thereof redoundeth. By transferring when he intendeth the benefit thereof to some certain person or persons  Bonds by which men are bound, and obliged: bonds that have their strength not from their own nature – but from fear of some evil consequence upon the rupture  Therefore there by some rights, which no man can be understood by any words or other signs to have abandoned or transferred  There is no benefit consequent to such patience as there is to the patience of suffering another to be wounded or imprisoned  Motive end for which this renouncing and transferring right is introduced, is nothing else but the security of a mans person, in his life, and in the means of so preserving life as not to be weary of it  The mutual transferring of right is that which men call contract  When the transferring of right is not mutual; but one of the parties transferreth in hope to gain thereby friendship or service from another or from his friends or in hope to gain the reputation of charity or magnamimity or to deliver his mind from the pain of compassion  This is not contract but gift – i will give, i will grant which words of the future are called promise  Words alone if they be of the time to come, and contain a bare promise are an insufficient sign of a free gift and therefore not obligatory  Contract is a mutual translation or change of right, and therefore he that promised onely because he hath already received the benefit for which he promised  A promise is equivalent to a covenant and therefore obligatory  He that performed first has no assurance the other will perform after; because the bonds of words are too weak to bridle mens ambition  For that which could not hinder a man from promising ought not to be admitted as a hindrance of performing  The matter, or subject of a covenant is always something that falled under deliberation (ot to covenant is an act of the will that is to say an act and the last act of deliberation) and is therefore always understood to be something to come  Men are freed of their covenants two ways, by performing or by being forgiven for performance is the natural end of obligation and forgiveness and restitution of liberty as being a re- transferring of that right  Prisoners of war if trusted with the payments of their ransom and are obliged to pay it  For whatsoever I may lawfully do without obligation the s
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