Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Foederati, Canadian Federalism, New Economics Foundation

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Federal : latin: foedus = covenant, union, compact. Sovereign states confederations federations devolution unitary states: modern federalism, powers and responsibilities divided between at least 2 constitutionally protected levels of government. Federal government, provinces , states , cantons , etc: sovereignty is shared sphere of control. Each level is sovereign within its own constitutionally defined. Powers can be rearranged only by consent of both constituent units and federal government. Goes against the idea that sovereignty is indivisible. Confederalism : constituent units are sovereign, general government only has powers which are given by constituent units. These powers can be taken back by constituent units alone: devolution, sovereign central government gives significant powers to lower levels. These powers can be taken back by central government alone: unitary state, central government totally dominates, can be taken back by central government alone. Only minimal powers given to lower levels. Ex: germany, which has less formal divisions of functions.

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