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Political Process Cont'd (4)

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

1 June 19, 2008 The Political Process Contd’ The Administration • Government needs administration to implement policies o Study of how government operates/puts things into place • Bureaucracy o “Office Holders” st  Vital to Western governments in the 21 century o Bureaucratic expertise and advise essential to elected politicians o Generally, in the West, the “size” of government has expanded greatly in the last 40 years  Government must do what the private sector cannot do/does poorly • Bureaucrats o Specialized positions o Career positions marked by tenure o Merit recruitment or patronage o Should be non-partisan o Hierarchal  Minister of ___________ (elected)  Deputy Minister (appointed)  Assistant Deputy Minister (appointed) o Follows rules Canadian Administration • Over 200,000 federal civil servants o 500,000 work for federal government in some fashion • Federal, provincial, and municipal governments employ 1 in 4 Canadians o “Public Sector Workers” o Many more have “private sector jobs” which directly depend on government contracts • It is often difficult to say where the “public service” begins and ends o Some take a narrow view to say that the “public service” are only those who help the government govern o Others say that it also includes functions carried out/contracted out by government  Ex: Police work, teaching • Substantial federal cutbacks to the federal “public service” have occurred since 1995 o There have been provincial cutbacks as well 2  Ex: Ontario • Staffing of the public service in Canada is supposed to be based on merit o Affirmative action is becoming a factor o Patronage – granting positions because of political connections – remains a reality • In Canada, a change in government often leads to minimal changes in top-level bureaucrats o Unlike the U.S. Types of Federal Bureaucratic Structures in Canada • Federal Government departments o Implement federal policies o Headed by Minister  Minister responsible for the workings of the department under the principle of ministerial responsibility o Deputy Minister, unelected  Often most influential person in departments, even more so than Minister • Crown Agencies o Are not generally responsible to a Minister but usually report to Parliament o Crown Corporations  Corporations under federal control which perform a certain social or economic function which usually is deemed too important to be left to the private sector alone  Semi-autonomous • Ex: Canada Post, CBC, Bank of Canada, National Film Board, LCBO o Regulatory Agencies  Help to define and enforce government regulations • Laws which affect private corporations  Semi-autonomous and “quasi-legislative” • Ex: CRTC, Atomic Energy Control Board o Advisory Bodies  Advise politicians on major issues  Mostly temporary • Ex: Royal Commissions, task forces, PWBKC (Putting Women Back in the Kitchen Commission) 3 The Judiciary • Legal branch of state • Interprets laws passed by politicians • Interprets common laws and practices • Essential to any state based on rule of law • Hierarchal series o
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