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Lecture 14

Psychology 2070A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Carl Hovland, Attitude Change, Cognitive Load

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Irene Cheung

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- trying to change peoples attitudes
- if you can change an attitude, it may lead to change the behaviour
- how do we persuade someone?
Why is persuasion important?
- avg. american see between 247-3000 ads/day
Persuasive communications ad Attitude Change
- there are many ways to approach persuasive communication
- Carl Hovland et al- Yale Attitude change approach
- what conditions are most liely to influence persuasive communication?
- who- source of the communication
- credible, trustworthy, attractive and likeable people are more
- UW study
- 2 conditions
- interested in efects of speaker credibility
- method: participants ransomly assigned to 1 of 2 speakers
- credible speaker vs. non credible speaker
- result: more influenced by credible speaker than by non
credible speaker
- what- communication content
- in general, it is best to present a two sided argument if you are
able to refute your counter argument
- primacy effect more likely with back to back speeches and break
before decisions
- to whom- nature of the audience
- distracted audience
- low intelligence
- moderate self esteem
- ages 18-25
Yale Attitude Change Approach
- important- identified factors that influence persuasion
- but how do we know what factor should be emphasized?
- in general, people want to have correct attitudes and beliefs
- people have to selectively pay more attention to some things than others
- elaboration likelihood (ELM)
Kinds of persuasiveness
- wanting to be right vs efficient
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central route: persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the argument and
respond with favorable thoughts
- people carefully scrutinize the information contained in the message
- does the message fit well with what i already know?
- do i agree/disagree?
- how does this information affect me?
- when people do this
- why do people take the central route?
- motivation- high personal importance
- ability/capability- can pay attention to arguments; need for cognition
- need for cognition sample items
- cognitive load- less likely to take the central route
- when students are under cognitive load, they a
Peripheral route
- message itself does not have to be very strong or very persuasive
- if we’re interested in long lasting attitude change than we should care
AIDS study
- increase hs students ku of aide
- people were given ether a script lecture or vid w same concept
- poeple who did role play had nore knowledge
- when we process info more critically
the cmmunicator credibility
- judge vs dealer conviction treatment in prison
what makes a source more credible?
- expertise or sompetence
- powerful effect on audience
- overhearing a sales pitch is more compelling than hearing it yourself
SAT study
- strong speech half read weak speech
- half believed student was from their school, other half was from another
- when the argument was strong, they were more persuaded by a student from their
university than one from another university
petition study
- attractiveness of people who are ging around with petition varied
- if the person was attractive they got 41% to sign. less attractive got 32%
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