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Lecture 10

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Psychology 2115A/B

Lecture 10 10/29/2012 11:30:00 AM Three cues for picking up direction of sound  1. Time of arrival: difference between the left and right ear something said on your right side will be heard by your right ear first (not as important does not last the entire duration of the sound)  2. Intensity differences: a sound heard on the right side will seem more intense because the sound is a direct input, not like the left that would have to go around your head o demonstration: all that changes is the frequency moves across to the right, as a result of the left tone dampening o more noticeable in high frequency tones because they don’t bend around you’re head like a low frequency tone  3. Phase difference: as the sound waves come in through the ear, they are at a certain phase, but when they come in the next ear, they will be at a different phase Form Perception  How do you turn two dimensional objects on your retina and turn it into the three dimensional objects you see  There is a basis of form perception: o Contours: o There is an abrupt changes in luminance o If you have a stimulus that gives you an abrupt change in colour, you will not see the contour very well What happens if you don’t have contours?  This is created naturally- people that go into really serious snow storm (everything seems the same colour) you lose your ability to see  Visual system shuts down this is called a ganzfeld  Not only can we not see objects, we cant perceive anything  We need a change in contours you can not stare at a specific point, your eyes are always moving (different places on the retina) What would happen if you could stare a stationary object? (NO RETINAL MOVEMENT)  Need a contact lens device that’s its on your eye and moves with your eye  has an arm sticking out of it with a word on the end  What happens is that every time your eye moves, the word moves with it  What will happen is that the word will disappear because the contours aren’t changing  When there is ambiguity we can use cues to determine what is foreground and what is background o Example on the board with a black cross on a white background o Size: smaller things tend to be seen as the foreground o Brightness: things that are closer to use seem brighter, there fore we perceive things that are brighter as the foreground o Getting contours to come together to form objects:  Learning is involved  you know what a cube is, that’s why you would perceive a cube (example on the board with black dots and white lines making a cube) The Gestaltist School  The human perceptual system is more or less to designed to see things in a particular way  the human system has principals that you are born with (don’t need previous learning)  principals: o proximity: we group elements on the basis of their relative nearness to one another – their proximity (16 balls push them closer together see four rows) o similarity: we tend to group similar elements (ex, colours) (25 balls in the square change some of the colours from blue to red, now you see rows of red and blue) o good continuation: you perceive things in continuation o o o o ^ tend to see two lines that flow o closure: even when an object is incomplete, there is a tendency to fill the gaps and see a completely closed figure o simplicity or good figure: overlapping shapes: you assume that there is a square, circle and triangle- but really there are different shapes  a square with three different colours, a pac man looking figure and a triangle with a missing piece The law of pragnamg  Our system strives for order as simple as it can be, wont perceive things in a complicated way if there is a simpler way  Perception is not instant over a measureable time Werner (1950)  Did trials: some times with both a target and a mask, and sometimes with just the target  Had the disk and the ring (target and mask)  Trials that there was just a target: always saw the target  Trials where the mask was shown after the target: (ring after disk) when you delay the time between the disk disappearing and the ring appearing   when you vary the interstimulus interval (time between the two stimuli), (if perception stopped after the image went away it wouldn’t matter but peoples ability to perceive the first stimulus and the interstimulus interval were related)   when there was a long delay they were always able to see that there was a disk but when there was a medium interval (1000ms) people could not perceive the disk   When really short they saw the disk and the ring together, if you wait longer you see the disk and the ring separate  Perception does not end when the stimulus ends  it keeps going even if the stimulus is gone, why it seems to go backward (erasing the image you saw previous)  Perception of objects takes time  This is really confusing and I’m sorry   The probability that you will see the stimulus you will have a graph plotted : vertical axis probability P (y) yes against the inter stimulus the function is like a wave  this is because at first they see the ring, then they see the disk 
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