Class Notes (806,741)
Canada (492,424)
Psychology (6,022)
Prof (28)

Psych 2115 Nov 20.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2115A/B

Psych 2115 Lecture Nov 20 Attention - What is the scientific study of attention? What is it based on? William James: followed closely behind Helmholtz. 1880's. When I want to attend to something, what goes on in my mind? Increase of salience of the thing you're attending to, decrease of salience of the things you're not attending to. We attend to something by increasing the salience of something. We can only attend to 1 or 2 things at the same time- limited process. People used to believe it was an all or nothing thing, but now people believe you can put more capacity onto certain things, thought of in a continuous way (can be spread around) Attention= pool of resources we have to use for processing. Can attend to something but do other things very well Today: Auditory attention In the processing of this thing, where does the attention happen. Stimulus causes you to perceive something, results of perceiving end up in short term memory system (S  perception  STM). Attention capabilities exist in the short term memory. Are there also attentional things that happen during perception? Cocktail Party Phenomenon: Can be at a cocktail party and you can decide "I want to listen to what that person is saying", and you can attend to whatever auditory stimulus you want to attend to. Broadbent (?) We have attentional capabilities during auditory processing. What is the cue people use to decide to attend to certain things? How do you segregate stimuli? Cues: 1. Location 2. Loudness 3. Pitch Differences 4. Semantics (guy talking about baseball or the stock market- TVs at same location, same pitch, same loudness, you can choose to listen about baseball) Location is the most useful (use this as the cue to attend) Experiment by Colin Cherry: Give a subject headphones, one conversation in each ear (dichotic listening)- this makes location the cue, experimenter says "listen to the right ear (but no guarantee subject will do what you say). Second technique: "shadowing", making the person repeat back the story they're supposed to attend back word for word. So Broadbent uses a combination of dichotic listening and shadowing. Broadbent Experiment 1: Sets up subjects with headphones and sets up dichotic listening, tells them to attend to one story, makes them repeat it back. Does perception work during auditory processes? Played 4 different kinds of stimuli in the unattended ear, asks what they can report from unattended ear; when he played tones in the unattended ear the person noticed, when the sex of the speaker changed in the unattended ear most people noticed (60-70%), when he changed the language of the story almost no one notices, when he reversed the tape people didn’t notice. He concluded you don’t get the information into short-term memory or you would notice the different language or a word that was backward. You only perceive the stuff you're attending to. You're filtering things out at the level of perception. "Filter theory"- you filter out the unattended stuff and it doesn’t get perceived/ filed into short-term memory Morray (1959): What if you repeated something a lot in the unattended ear (made it easy to perceive), unattended ear would have a bunch of words and a certain one would be repeated like 30 times. People couldn’t report them. Morray's experiment supported Broadbent's theory; you don’t perceive things you're not attending to. Boadbent did another experiment: How does the filter work? Headsets on, dichotic listening, gives them 3 digits on each ear, come in every half second, report the digits back. Two report conditions: 1) report by ear (report numbers from right ear, then left ear) 2) time of arrival (first two digits, first from right, first from left, second from right, etc.) Hypothesized that this filter that you set up is going to require effort to deal with. When he tells you to report by ear you filter out left ear, listen to right, remove the filter and you can no perceive what was said in the left ear (retrieve the numbers from your echo box before they disappear). If you filter by time of arrival, optimizing it, shifting the filter a bunch of times, Broadbent says this will be the hard condition. Says by ear its just one filter switch and its easier. He was right; if you try to recall by time of arrival, you only got 20% correct
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2115A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.