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Lecture 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2410A/B
Professor
Adam Cohen
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture  9:  Monday,  March-­‐25-­‐13   Outline  last  time:   -­‐ Social  logic:  Behaviourmental  states;  desire,  intention,  pretense,  belief   -­‐ 3  classic  tasks:  conceptual  change  theory,  early  competence  theory,  performance  demands   (“look  first”  task)     • Final  exam  will  be  cumulative!  The  exam  is  April  27,  2013  @  7pm.  All  new  material  +  readings   (week  10,  11,  12,  13)  will  be  more  heavily  weighted.  All  old  lecture  material  are  relevant  but  not   old  readings     Conceptual  change  view:  4  year  olds  are  more  competent  than  three  year  olds  (there  is  a  change  in   competence)   Early  competence:  there  is  a  change  in  ability  to  demonstrate  what  they  know  (handle  task   demands)…there  is  a  gradual  shift  (even  though  competence  is  already  quite  rich  at  3  yrs)     Look  First  Task   -­‐ Sally-­‐Anne  task,  as  described  previously.  Ask  the  c hild,  where  will  Sally  look   first  for  her  marble?   (changing  the  question,  make  it  more  clear  what  you’re  asking)     this  should  only  help  if  there   really  is  a  performance  demand  (not  if  the  problem  is  lack  of  competence).  This  means,  the   conceptual  change  view  would  continue  to  predict  the  same  thing  (3  yr  olds  fail  the  task  and  4   year  olds  pass).  The  early  competence  view  predicts  that  performance  in  the  false  belief   condition  will  jump  up!  (false  belief:  Sally  doesn’t  see  Anne  move  the  marble;  true  belief:  Sally   sees  Anne  move  the  marble)   Infant  FB  Task     -­‐ There  is  a  familiarization  phase.  If  you  see  someone,  and  see  their  eyes  move  to  a  location,  you   will  always  look  there.  In  this  phase,  they  have  a  visor  covering  the  persons  eyes  to  avoid  this.   The  child  sees  watermelon  placed  into  one  of  two  boxes.  They   then  see  the  experimenter  reach   towards  that  box.     -­‐ Test  phase:  can  either  see  or  not  see  what  is  going  on,  and  watermelon  goes  to  one  of  the  two   boxes.     -­‐ Belief  induction  phase:  see  the  person  in  the  background  go  to  one  of  the  locations.  There  is  an   expected  search  (infant  not  surprised)  and  unexpected  search  (infant  should  be  surprised).   Which  condition  is  expected  vs.  unexpected  changes  depending  on  if  the  person  can  see  or  not   see  where  the  watermelon  goes.   -­‐ This  was  done  with  15  month  olds.  Graph:  you  pl ot  looking  time  along  the  y -­‐axis.  On  the  x-­‐axis,   there  is  True  Belief  (expected  vs.  unexpected)  and  Flase  Belief  (expected  vs.  unexpected).  With   both  TB  and  FB,  looking  times  are  low  for  expected  events  and  high  for  unexpected  events.   Newborn  babies  are  al tricial  …they  need  attachment  with  their  parents/caregivers.  Some  species  (hares,   certain  birds)  are  precocial,  and  have  no  reliance  on  their  mothers.     Attachment  a  bond  with  another  person.     Psychoanalytical  theory    Feeding  is  the  basis  for  development  of  attachment  (often  the   mother)     Watson’s  behaviorism   food  is  an  US,  and  generates  approach  behaviours  as  UR.  You  pair  the   mother  (neutral)  with  the  food,  and  the  mother  becomes  conditioned  (CS)  to  produce  approach   behaviours.   Skinner’s  behaviorism  approach  behaviour  is  reinforced  by  food.     3  Challenges:     1. Orphanage  children.  All  their  needs  (psychical)  were  met.  There  wasn’t  “normal”  social   interactions,  however.  Their  problems  persisted  throughout  their  entire  lives  (hard  time  getting   jobs,  starting  familes,  etc.)     2. Attachment  in  monkeys  (Harry  Harlow)     a. Surrogate  mother  experiments  (separated  from  mother  at  birth,  got  to  interact  between  a   wire  mesh  “mother”  that  feeds  it,  or  a  terry  cloth  “mother”)   -­‐ Feeding  version    DV:  how  much  time  does  monkey  spend  with  each  mother  (wire  m
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