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Lecture 9

Sociology 2151 Evolution of Cities - Lecture 9 (William Marshal)

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Western University
Sociology 2151A/B
William Marshall

Sociology 2151 – Lecture 9 African Cities • Urban development in Africa have been inconsistent o Highest % of urbanism is in the south east o Kush empire, people who were trading in iron and copper, large cities, commerce, met most of the characteristics that childe talked about • Roman Empire collapsed in the year 400 • Spread of the Islamic religion in 602 • One typical African city: (According to the UN) • Center = Commercial/ residential o Indigenous/high density  Mixed/intermediate • Elite o Shanties/villages  Industry and large-scale institutions • Model assumes cities were built after the Europeans came • Walls protected them from the elements • Typical African city in the pre-European time period o No individual ownership of land o Owned by the king or chief o Daily life was centered around religious and craft activities o Did things by hand o Very little occupational specialization/ social stratification o Very little segregation and material possessions o Rich and poor lived side by side • Things began to change in the 1500-1600’s o European nations wanted colonies o England, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Italy all had colonies within Africa o Most were unsuccessful in colonization o Slave trade was successful and lasted a long time • 1500-1800’s slave trade existed from Africa to North America o Total number of slaves = 12,000,000 sold into slavery o Busiest year, 50,000 individuals were sold into slavery in one year o Changed the culture of African cities o Intertribal wars also impacted their society • Slavery was abolished in the 1800’s • Europeans’ wanted to establish cities along the coast o Africans were more interested in living in land o To subjugate the indigenous population and allow them to trade easily o Needed people to build the cities (manual labour) o Needed a way to induce people into working in city  So they imposed taxes on everyone  Those that couldn’t pay were taken to the city to work in order to earn the money needed (coin of the realm) o African society had no concept of buying things with money (used to trade and bartering) o Any extra money earned was often spent on tools used for their occupation (ex. Farming tools) • Imposition of taxes changed African society o Money became more important o Instead of bargaining they used money o Became more materialistic o Bought material possession that were more luxuries than necessities (cloth, animals, tools) • French didn’t like anyone not willing to submit to the Napoleonic code o Made people switch over to French and teach French in school (French assimilation) o Everything must be done in French o Couldn’t use their original language, couldn’t worship their own gods • Different parts of Africa were colonized by different European countries o European’s didn’t like living among the Africans o Build their own cities that were European in nature o Fortified these cities o Wanted European domination over the continent o Rules about where each race/ group could live o Some just had zoning regulations o Imposed very high transit rates (restricted who could ride the buses) o Imposed certain dress codes in public places  Money became a less obvious way to segregate the population by race • Cities were very small when the Europeans were there o African populations couldn’t afford to live there, nor did they want to • Persisted until WWII o Colonies were involved in WWII o Spent a lot of money on weapons o Africans wanted independence from Europe o 1959-89 gained independence o First countries trained their people to have the skills to maintain the country  Set up without tribal borders  Created civil war because bigger tribes could just come and claim territory (ex. Hutu & Tutsi)  Countries weren’t ready for independence • Beginning of the 1960’s mortality rate began to decrease (increase in better health care) • Fertility rates remained the same of increased o Population explosion • Logos population = 5-6 million but actually around 15-16 million o People would migrate to the bigger/ richer cities o Not
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