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Lecture 4

Sociology 2151 Evolution of Cities - Lecture 4 (William Marshal)

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2151A/B
Professor
William Marshall
Semester
Fall

Description
10/10/2013 Sociology 2151- Lecture 4 • Normlessness- Anomie L. Wirth – “Urbanism as a Way of Life” (1938) • City = “large, dense, permanent settlement with social and cultural heterogeneity” Size 1. Diversity of characteristics 2. Occupational specialization 3. Increase in impersonal relations (what not who) 4. “loosening of morals” (individuality replaces tradition) • We don’t care about who people are but what they are and what function they carry out to benefit us • People don’t know who’s rules to follow Density: Intensifies the above (4) + 1. Ecological specialization, areas of the city take on certain characteristics to minimize conflict 2. Loss of sensitivity to surroundings 3. Increased tolerance 4. Increasing social distance • Limit social distance between people we don’t know • Ex. Elevators (don’t make eye contact) Heterogeneity: intensifies all of the above + 1. Increased social mobility 2. Insecurity & instability (apathy & anomie) 3. Standardization; increasing importance of money • Power, prestige, and wealth vary from person to person • Increasing importance of money Concentric Zone Hypothesis (BURGESS)- This is the quaint drawing that appeared in Burgess’s original essay. 10/10/2013 • Residential zone = middle-class area o More disposable income for them to travel into the city • Commuter’s zone o Can afford the transportation into the city when necessary Chicago’s Concentric Zones (better diagram of what Chicago was actually like) Shifts in location of fashionable residential areas in six American cities (studied 142 cities) • Fashionable residential areas grew along the transportation paths (away from the inner city) 10/10/2013 Sector Theory (HOMER HOYT) Multiple Nuclei Diagram (HARRIS AND ULMAN) • Each city is different and will have different districts and specializations • Locate business and commercial business near the people that are most likely to buy the products or services offered (ex. Masonville mall near the upper/middle class) 10/10/2013 Schwirian and Matre “The Ecological Structure of Canadian Cities” (1969) • Social status = sectoral • Degree of familism = zonal distribution Micheal J. White- AMERICAN NEIGHBORHOODS (1987) Contemporary cities comprised of only 7 elements 1. Core 2. Zone of stagnation 3. Pockets of poverty and minorities 4. Elite enclaves 5. Diffused middle class 6. Institutional anchors 7. Epicenters and corridors Rod McKenzie – Ecological Processes (1925) (all of these happen at once, constantly happening) 1. Concen
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