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Lecture 8

Sociology 2266A/B Lecture 8: Final exam lecture 3

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Sociology 2266A/B
Jennifer Reynolds

Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Integration and Contemporary Theories and Feminist Criminology Exam* One short answer from this lecture ‣ ‣ Chapter in relation to this lecture - do not worry about it and just look for bold words and the summary only ‣ Don’t need to know crime and human nature Integrated Theories Multifactor Theories The Social Development Model • Integration of social control, social learning, and structural theories Social control indirectly controls us Individual factors combined with economic • Community-level risk factors contribute to criminality Social control, disorganization and opportunities • Children are socialized to develop bonds to their family through: 1. Perceived opportunities for involvement in activities and interactions with others 2. The degree of involvement and interaction 3. The skills to participate in these interactions ๏ Have you learned prosocial skills 4. The reinforcement (feedback) they perceive for their participation ๏ Positive feedback when someone does something right To control risk of antisocial behaviour, children must maintain prosocial bonds • 1 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 To parents and other people - have to want to conform and be want to be taught this • Combines structure, learning, development theories Latent Trait Approach ‣ Can be present at birth or it is developed early in life and remains stable over time Some traits = defective intelligence, aggressive and passive personality and other ‣ sources of genetic abnormalities and things that you have inherited Those who have the traits are more likely to become career criminals because the ‣ traits are stable over time ‣ They argue that crime age increases 15-24 because opportunities to do crimes decrease after that Latent Trait Theory • Master Trait: Personal attributes may be present at birth or established early in life, and it remains stable over time • Regardless of gender, those who maintain one of these suspect traits may be at risk to crime and criminal careers • Propensity to commit crime is stable, criminal opportunities fluctuate over time, maturity brings less opportunity You can teach them how to control their latent trait Early social control and proper parenting can reduce criminal propensity • In any theory proper parenting is their recommendation and this matches up with general theory of crime Life Course Theories ‣ It is not opportunities that fluctuate it is criminal propensity — people do mature out of crime -> developmental process, not a trait ‣ Most criminals = adolescent limited offenders Only crime at 15-24 then grow out of it • 2 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 • Some will keep on doing it Things change as people get older ‣ ‣ Doesn’t mean that if you are born with latent traits that it is over for you - as you mature behaviour changes, criminal or otherwise Glueck’s Popularized the research on the life cycle of delinquent careers • • ‘The deeper the roots of childhood maladjustment, the smaller the change of adult adjustment’ • Got group of known delinquents and followed them over time to determine what was going on where you have some of these kids that mature out of criminality and some that keep doing it — Studies came out with; Children most likely to be delinquent: ๏Low IQ’s ๏A back ground of mental disease and ๏A powerful physique Socio-psychological factors (poverty, neighbourhood deterioration (etc) also important • Led to study of criminal careers/life-course approach Life Course Approach • Criminality is influenced by individual characteristics, social experiences, economic and environmental factors Like multi factor theory People change over life course • • Criminal involvement changes over time as a result of life transitions • a variety of pathways to crime • Disruptions in life’s major transitions Can be destructive 3 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Can promote criminality • People influenced by different factors as they mature • Negative life events can be cumulative Like, living in poverty will disadvantage them in education then they have a child and it all continues These things accumulate for negative events The Life Course View • Changing life influences in course to criminal careers First/early adolescence (ex. family relations) -> Adolescence (ex. peer influence) -> Adulthood (ex. marital relationships, v ocational) Loeber’s Pathways to Crime* ‣ As you move up less and less people being involved in it 4 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Adolescent-Limited Offenders and Life-Course Persisters ‣ Different paths and different timing ‣ Adolescent-limited offenders Peak then diminishes (majority) • ‣ Small group persists why? Combination of family dysfunction with severe neurological problems that • predispose individuals to antisocial behaviour patterns • Mimic behaviour of troubled teens • Faster mature (pseudo-maturity) = greater chance to commit crime because a lot more responsibility being placed on them than any kid should have Early vs. Late onset Life course theory suggests criminal careers are planted early in life through: (no ‣ peer pressure) • 1) Poor parenting, which leads to • 2) Deviant behaviours and then • 3) Involvement with delinquent groups ‣ Late starters have somewhat different path* (can avoid criminal behaviour if can avoid getting into the bad crew) 1) Poor parenting, which leads to • • 2) Identification delinquent group and then into • 3) Deviant involvement Why do some desist? ‣ ‘Protective’ Factors • Non-deviant family • Close attachments 5 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Mom, dad, sibling, teacher, friends with prosocial attachments • Good parenting • Employment • Relationships ‘Shy kids’ • ‣ Experiences over the life course shape the direction and flow of behaviour choices Sampson and Laub Important/popular book: Crime in the making: Pathways and Turning points through ‣ life • First to fully outline ‘life course’ criminology • Put forth a life course theory • Use ‘glueck data’ to test theory As people mature the factors that influence the propensity to commit crime • change In childhood = family In adulthood = marriage and career factors Age-graded Theory • Sampson and Laub identified turning points (critical events) that may enable an offender to desist from crime Essential turning points: ๏ Marriage ๏ Career Social capital: • Research suggests the greater the social capital the more likely one will be insulated from crime 6 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 ๏ Pro social social capital ‣ Do you have lots of friends that are supportive and pro social too? • People who maintain a successful marriage and become parents are more likely to mature out of crime Events that occur in later adolescence and adulthood do, in fact, influence the • direction of delinquent and criminal careers Life events can either help terminate or sustain Contemporary Theories: Convict Criminology ‣ If you want to understand criminals, then you should be studying them ‣ Views of convicts typically marginalized -> tend to give more credit to the opinion of experts instead of those people that actually committed the crime Origins ‣ Prisoners’ Right Movement (1960s and 1970s) • Inside Perspective (less about being an outsider trying to figure out what’s happening) ‣ Failure of Prisons • Many convicts are non violent Hold many convicts too long • • Little emphasis on early transition back to community Underfunded (only 13% of federal corrections budge goes to community services, mostly salaries for parole officers) Methods ‣ Ethnography main method -> actually try to immerse yourself in the environment - prison and try to understand what is going on ‣ Centrality of ethnography 7 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 ‣ The street, inside prisons, observation, interviewing, participant observation etc So-called new ‘School of Convict Criminology’ ‣ Operating Assumptions ‣ Understand crime or prisons, talk to convicts • In the past was not to convicts, it was anyone else ‣ Table reserved= convicts talk about psychiatrists, probation and parole officers, courts, attorneys, schools, etc ‣ Research validated by personal experience John Irwin ‣ Elder statesman ‣ Professor in California Author, The Felon (1970), Prisons in Turmoil, The Jail, It’s About Time (with James ‣ Austion) ‣ Former robber, now retired professor S.F. State University ‣ Student of Donald Cressey Student of Edwin Sutherland • • ‘Most of the time, even horrendous acts make some sense if you fully appreciate the perpetrator’s viewpoints or the full contexts of their crimes’ Comack’s (1996) Women in Trouble* 24 mostly Aboriginal women in Manitoba Prison ‣ • Went here in 1996 to talk to them about their experiences in comparison to men (does race, class and gender play a role in their experience was the main thing) • Victimization and childhood maltreatment 85-95%, men like 30% Situate womens’ criminality ‣ 8 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 ‣ Histories of familial and domestic abuse (physical, sexual, emotional, alcohol and drugs) Female criminality a function of how women cope with, resist, or survive a ‣ history of abuse • Must be or else they would not have in common this one thing • Learned violence, became violent, drank more, stole more ‣ Law n’ order tactics vs social, economic and political issues • Law and order tactics does not work • Fight the social, economic and political issues - underlying problems Goals ‣ Challenge conventional theory • Crime could be made better by talking to people about their experiences ‣ Critique managerial criminologie Transform way research on prisons is conducted ‣ ‣ Insist on policy reforms from a convict perspective Convict Recommendations Convicts serving drug sentences are ‘political prisoners’ ‣ • Terminate drug war Addiction should be a public health problem not a criminal conviction problem • ‣ Importance of humane programs within prisons ‣ Problems of Re-entry ‣ Reduce prisons and prison populations, dramatically ‣ Better food, clothing and comprehensive treatment ‣ Voting rights restored 9 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Critique of Convict Criminology ‣ Critics suggest that having been in prison distorts the criminologist’s view of the field, rather than enhancing it ‣ Argue that personal experience rarely gives anyone the entire picture need to understand a phenomenon ‣ Focusing on injustice of prison life may keep one from appreciating the reformative effects of punishment People get caught up with the bad stuff of being in prison but what about the good • stuff? Contemporary Critical Theory* Critical Criminology ‣ Critical criminology draws attention to overlooked injustices ‣ Early critical criminology in Canada focused on how economic power is implicated in the operations of criminal justice Today’s critical criminology does not maintain this dedication to a political economic ‣ approach to crime Foucault ‣ Foucault contributed to critical criminology through his work on power ‣ Govern-mentality (one of his first concepts) • The art of governing • Not just the government telling you what you can and cannot do but its any attempt to shape behaviour • Teach people how to govern themselves -> make better choices • Teach people how to be governed • Teach how to be the best governor 10 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Power ‣ • Claims it operates on us everywhere • Evident only when exercised • Not always repressive or negative • Extends beyond the state -> not just the state that has power It’s relational • It operates by Disciplining us ๏ As you get older you know Surveillance ๏ Produces desired outcome which is conformity Risk* Calculated probability of an event ‣ ‣ Actuarialism, risk and the risk society are terms used to understand the use of evaluations of risk and harm in contemporary criminal justice practice ‣ Beck’s conception of the risk society • We’re increasingly becoming aware of the risks that concerns us Influence on critical criminology: ‣ • Social problems become risks to be managed We have to try and manage the population of people that live in poverty, we don’t look at the causes of that but just look at how we can fix it • Risk thinking transforms CJS practices Tough on crime, lock more people up, longer sentences etc 11 Tuesday, March 28, 2017 Agamben: Sovereignty and the State of Exception* ‣ Agamben examines the power of the sovereign to define individuals as being outside of law (how things have changed and evolved since 9/11) • Built into law is the state of exception, that is, the sovereign’s ability to suspend rights and protections Government can do whatever they want to Criminal law is vividly revealed as a source of exclusion • • State of ‘naked life’ Anyone excluded from possessing human rights It is the sovereign that establishes these decisions Criticisms and Practical Implications of Contemporary Critical Criminology? ‣ T
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