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Lecture

Day 4 Term 2

4 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2240E
Professor
Brendan Murphy

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Day 4 Of a lot Antonio Gramsci - Journalist of socialist newspapers - Central member of the communist party - He got arrested and jacked up by Mussolini o “We have to prevent that this mind continue thinking”  Mussolini - All that we know about his political theories are from his prison notebooks Why didn’t the Marxist revolution happen? - Gramsci said because of hegemony o Check your notes for this Two types of Intellectuals - Traditional o What we have come to know as a brain o They believe to be independent of the dominant social group - Organic o Those who develop from within their own class Gramsci’s Hope - The proles can generate organic intellectuals o But he wanted the intellect to stay in interest of the class - Gramsci thinks that traditional intellectual is a part of the working class - Everyone is an intellectual o To say someone is not an intellectual you’re not referring to their intelligence it’s more how they function within society A reminder on Marx - Base: forces and relations of production o Division of labour and all of the stuff within those relations - Super structure: all of the things on top of base (education, government, rituals, culture, etc.) - For Marx: relationship is one-way; base determines superstructure Gramsci on base and superstructure - Two major super structural levels o Political society: the state, government juridical institutions  Direct Domination  Judges, laws, governments, things like that  Function for the dominating class  Governance of the state • Replicates itself through laws that keep things the same o Civil society: Education, religion, culture, etc  Hegemony • Spontaneous consent of the population to this general direction of social life • People just going along with things without giving it a whole lot of thought o 1984!!!! • Consent by participation • In the interests of the dominant class Are the underlying interests of an action what’s important or is the action all that matters? Also is 1984 a direct attack on Marx? Horkheimer, Traditional and Critical Theory (published 1937): - ‘traditional’ theory: positivists, scientific, observational - ‘critical’ theory: meant to “explain what is wrong with current social reality, identify actors to change it, and provide clear norms for criticism and practical goals for the future.” o Still descriptive, but it’s more subjective, no
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