BU288 Lecture Notes - Outer Core, Free Rider Problem, Social Loafing
After industrial revoluzioton, conveyor belt system came in , and we were successful economy.
Manufacturing really well. 1980 when Japanese came and did everything better than how we did
it ? Why?
1) Use of a lot of teams an groups (works well for the culture and the mentality of teamwork and
collectivist mentality, you have that kind of personality)
2) Your personal interest is weaker than your interest in the group
3) Promotion method: Can not be promoted until somebody else was train to get this job.
Solution: Try to replicate them.
Teams and Groupwork
Innovation: Creativity cannot be solve by one person.
As economy changes, problems and customers change, so it provides a new perspective.
(High customer service)
Reduce Hand-offs: Opportunity for miscommunication, you do your part of the task and
send it to somebody else that does not have the same background in the matter.
Reduce time to get things done (One place to go): Car producing, goes to many steps
designer sends it but producer can not make it so then the product is returned and has to
be done re-designed. Serial development: products going back-and-forth. Parallel
development: Do it as a team.
Enrich the job: Re-desing the organization to make the jobs more motivating and fun.
In a team responsible for a decision its more fun, because you become responsible for
what the outcome becomes. Training and coaching: Senior managers can be a mentor
and glad to have a mentee to teach. “More fun for whoever is working in a team”
Creative Capacity: Different ideas and perspectives , diversity
Autonomy and decision making: Move the peripheral jobs to the outer core by
increasing responsibilities and challenges of tasks.
Buy-in: You are part of the group and responsible for the project, so because you
influence the outcome directly, you are more responsible to make less mistakes and
Authority Bias: More perspectives with authority.
As a team you understand the company better, its goals and its value.
To be successful working as a Team
Use team base rewards, performance appraisals as well as team base training. Have the
resources available for the team to work well, and have the RIGHT people for the expertise.
Some type of diversity. Group Polarization: Initial decision is either stronger or weaker (more
aggressive on the decision, nobody to think differently (diverse perspective).
Real team tasks: When problem has to be solve as a team.
Authority, team goals, and team norms.
Norms (and Metanorms/consequences): Controlling human behavior without having to
reward, punish or somebody watching. Model the behavior to the desire optimal level.
Legislation has no teeth: When you create norms without consequence, so its not effective.
Problems in a team
1. Free rider problem: (Take advantage of the team) Conscious decision, your group is
going to do a well job so I will not put enough effort (on the expense of another)
Sucker effect: You, the working member, see that somebody else is free riding, so seeing
this behavior reduces the effort of the team members to not be (The sucker)
2. Social loafing: In a group where you don’t feel to put the effort because “the
organization will not fire you all”
3. Dominant Group member: Extraversion and takes over the whole decision making
4. Conflict within the group: Hard for people to treat each other’s as equal, especially if
you are peers, solving internal problems get complicated.
5. Division of Labor
6. Role ambiguity: Trying to figure out what your role is in the group
Tasks of Group
Additive Task: Rolling a boulder, you cannot do it alone. Somebody else joins and the boulder
moves a little bit more and it keeps moving as more people start integrating. The MORE the
Disjunctive Task: Best person is the one that has an impact in the group performance. Gets all
the perspectives, puts the pieces together. Keep the group at APPROPIATE level.
Conjunctive Task: When the weakest link (in a conveyor belt) Weakest link has the biggest
impact, as his mistake in his performance affects completely the performance of the group.
Increase in size increases the amount of weak links. LOW number of members.
When is diversity good? War is coming and you are going to sit with the team to choose what
to do. Quick decisions you do not want diversity! DIVERSITY takes time.
It gets longer to come up with decisions, More conflict and confusion,
More creative and more openness
Increase flexibility and better problem solving skills.
Homogeneous group: More tasks that require cooperation, done quickly
Heterogeneous group: If you have more complex tasks, have the time, and need different
perspectives and creativity form diversity.