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Lecture

EN 1006 Lecture Notes - Ars Dictaminis, Medieval Latin, Ecclesiastical Latin


Department
English
Course Code
EN 1006
Professor
Rosita Georgieva

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Lecture 7 Notes:
Medieval Rhetoric and the Principles of Letter Writing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Z1vZcYRntM&feature=fvwrel
1. The end of the Classical Period
--Classical Period stretches through the first sophistic teachers (Corax and Tisias) and
Greek rhetoricians (5-4th c BC) to Roman orators and stylists like Cicero and Quintilian
( 1st c BC) up to the Fall of Roman Empire (410 AD)
Roman Empire, Literacy and Education
Literature – the circulation of literary works increased; The Roman world became
gradually very dependent on writing; the most popular rhetorical technique taught in the
Roman classroom was that of declamation
--Roman schools –system of public education supported through local taxation and
government patronage; learned slaves served as readers and secretaries.
3 successive stages of public education:
1) Grammatistes – the age of 7 -- the alphabet, the pronunciation of words
and sentences; poetry memorization and declamation; training of the
memory and dictations
2) Grammaticus – at the age of 11 or 12 -- read and write; study of literature
and language; the basics of composition; interpretations of poets, reading
historians
3) Rhetoricus – the age of 15, only males --basic rhetorical techniques on
prose writing argumentation, declamation, stylistic amplification,
ornamentation
Augustan Golden Age – architecture, poetry, and the arts
--In 1st BC -- reconstruction of Rome under Augustus
--Religion for the Roman people, John Ferguson: “a matter not of belief but of cult,
not of creed but of ritual action”; rituals: sacrifice, purification, vows; divination and
oracles
--two different attitudes towards sex:
puritanical and repressive
permissive and seeking all kind of gratifications
Contribution of Cicero and Quintillian
Cicero – the Latinization of Greek rhetoric, esteemed orator and teacher of rhetoric,
Quintillian (a later rhetorician, born in 35 AD in Spain, lived in Rome; became the
supreme authority on rhetoric, died in 96 AD)
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--their contribution – the extension of the scope of rhetoric; believed that a good orator
must have a wide range of knowledge and good morals
Literature of the Roman world
Virgil -- a popular epic poet, the “Aeneid
Horace– the first Roman to write Latin lyrics in the Greek hexameter;”Ars Poetica”
Ovid – satire, poetry, “Metamorphoses”
The Fall of Roman Empire – 410 AD.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWcf7jOr1gQ
2. Medieval Period (c. 600 – 1500)
-Medieval History
The fall of Rome, Christianization, centralization of knowledge in church, disappearance
of much of classical culture from Latin west.
Medieval Education
– Medieval education – evolved from classical.
7 liberal arts:
trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric); a four-year undergraduate course of studies
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts;
Rhetoric in the trivium was concerned greatly with the art of letter writing
(arts dictaminis) and preparing and delivering sermons (artes praedicandi)
quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music); a three-year graduate
course leading to the Master of Arts
– Invention of University. Advanced studies: law, medicine, theology.
Medieval Literacy
--Literacy in medieval Latin -- centered on Roman Catholic Church
–Conventionalized church Latin became international language
--Church used Latin for liturgy and administration and
became the largest employer of literacy professionals
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