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Lecture

Medieval Rhetoric and the Principles of Writing

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Department
English
Course
EN 1006
Professor
Rosita Georgieva
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 7 Notes: Medieval Rhetoric and the Principles of Letter Writing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Z1vZcYRntM&feature=fvwrel 1. The end of the Classical Period --Classical Period stretches through the first sophistic teachers (Corax and Tisias) and Greek rhetoricians (5-4 c BC) to Roman orators and stylists like Cicero and Quintilian ( 1 c BC) up to the Fall of Roman Empire (410 AD)  Roman Empire, Literacy and Education Literature – the circulation of literary works increased; The Roman world became gradually very dependent on writing; the most popular rhetorical technique taught in the Roman classroom was that of declamation --Roman schools –system of public education supported through local taxation and government patronage; learned slaves served as readers and secretaries. 3 successive stages of public education: 1) Grammatistes – the age of 7 -- the alphabet, the pronunciation of words and sentences; poetry memorization and declamation; training of the memory and dictations 2) Grammaticus – at the age of 11 or 12 -- read and write; study of literature and language; the basics of composition; interpretations of poets, reading historians 3) Rhetoricus – the age of 15, only males --basic rhetorical techniques on prose writing argumentation, declamation, stylistic amplification, ornamentation  Augustan Golden Age – architecture, poetry, and the arts st --In 1 BC -- reconstruction of Rome under Augustus --Religion for the Roman people, John Ferguson: “a matter not of belief but of cult, not of creed but of ritual action”; rituals: sacrifice, purification, vows; divination and oracles --two different attitudes towards sex: puritanical and repressive permissive and seeking all kind of gratifications  Contribution of Cicero and Quintillian Cicero – the Latinization of Greek rhetoric, esteemed orator and teacher of rhetoric, Quintillian (a later rhetorician, born in 35 AD in Spain, lived in Rome; became the supreme authority on rhetoric, died in 96 AD) --their contribution – the extension of the scope of rhetoric; believed that a good orator must have a wide range of knowledge and good morals  Literature of the Roman world Virgil -- a popular epic poet, the “Aeneid Horace– the first Roman to write Latin lyrics in the Greek hexameter;”Ars Poetica” Ovid – satire, poetry, “Metamorphoses”  The Fall of Roman Empire – 410 AD. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWcf7jOr1gQ 2. Medieval Period (c. 600 – 1500) -Medieval History The fall of Rome, Christianization, centralization of knowledge in church, disappearance of much of classical culture from Latin west. Medieval Education – Medieval education – evolved from classical. 7 liberal arts: trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric); a four-year undergraduate course of studies leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts; Rhetoric in the trivium was concerned greatly with the art of letter writing (arts dictaminis) and preparing and delivering sermons (artes praedicandi) quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music); a three-year graduate course leading to the Master of Arts – Invention of University. Advanced studies: law, medicine, theology. Medieval Literacy --Literacy in medieval Latin -- centered on Roman Catholic Church –Conventionalized church Latin became international language --Church used Latin for liturgy and administration and became the largest employer of literacy professionals --Church handled marriage, baptism and education of children in church-affiliated schools Medieval Rhetoric Rhetoric divided into 3 arts useful to church: - Ars Poetriae (art of poetry, like ancient grammar, preliminary studies)
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