ORGS 1000 Lecture 6: Chapter 6- Motivation

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By: Jessica Gahtan
Chapter 6: Motivation
A set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity and
persistence of an employees work effort
Critical consideration because effective job performance often requires high
levels of both ability and motivation
Motivation is a set of distinct forces
oSome internal (self-confidence) some external (goals an employee is
given)
Motivation determines the direction in which their effort is channeled
Choices between task and citizenship sorts or actions or withdrawal and
counterproductive sorts of actions
Once direction has been decided, motivation determines how hard an
employee works- the intensity of the effort- and for how long- the
persistence of effort
Engagement
Term in contemporary workplaces that has different meanings depending on the
context, most often refers to motivation but it can refer to affective commitment
Employees who are engaged have completely invested themselves and their
energies into their jobs
Outwardly, devote a lot of energy to their jobs; inwardly, become absorbed,
involved and interested in their tasks
Organizations want engaged employees which makes it important to
understand the drivers of effort levels
Why are some employees more motivated than others?
- Direction, intensity and persistence of effort
Expectancy theory
- A theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to make
choices among different voluntary responses
- Employee behavior is directed towards pleasure and away from pain,
towards certain outcomes and away from others
Expectancy:
- Expectancy is the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in
successful performance on some task
oSubjective probability (ranges from 0-no change- to 1- fosho) that a
specific amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance
E.g. if you think you’re not good at writing poetry, you would
believe that even if you put more energy into writing a poem, it
won’t make a difference
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By: Jessica Gahtan
- Self efficacy is the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform
the behaviors required on some task
oIt’s like self-confidence or a task-specific version of self-esteem
oWhen consider efficacy for a given task, an employee will likely
consider the degree to which they’ve succeeded or failed at similar
tasks in the past
oIt is dictated by verbal persuasion- because people can persuade the
employee to get the job done
oDictated by emotional cues feelings of fear or anxiety can create
doubts about task accomplishment, whereas pride and enthusiasm
can bolster confidence levels
Can shape analyses of how difficult the task requirements are
and how adequate an employee’s personal and situational
resources will prove to be
- E.g. Like how halftime pep talks have references to previous victories(past
accomplishments) , how good the team is (verbal persuasion) , and sheers
(emotional cues)
Instrumentality
- Represents the belief that successful performance will result in some
outcome(s)
- Set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from 0-1 that successful
performance will bring a set of outcomes
- Instrumental- helps attain something else
- Evidence indicates that employees don’t generally perceive high levels of
instrumentally in their workplace
- Only 35% of employees in particular survey said that they felt that
performance was a key driver of their pay
o60% said that they thought it was seniority that drove this
Valence
- Reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
- Can be positive (I’d prefer option A as opposed to not having it), negative (I
would prefer not having outcome A as opposed to having it) or 0 (I’m bored
why are we still talking about this)
- Salary increases, bonuses and more informal rewards are typical examples of
‘positively valenced outcomes’
- Disciplinary actions, demotions and terminations are examples of ‘negatively
valenced outcomes’
- Employees are more motivated when successful performance helps them
attain attractive outcomes (like bonuses) while helping them avoid
unattractive outcomes
- Outcomes are deemed more attractive when they satisfy more needs(=
groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or
physiological consequences)
- Higher positive valence associated with a ‘growth opportunity’ oucome in
comparison with a social opportunity outcome
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By: Jessica Gahtan
- Would be reversed if the employee’s need for relatedness was stronger than
her need for growth
- Even though Scholars once suggested that certain needs are universal, it’s
likely that different people have different ‘need hierarchies’
Extrinsic motivation desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that
depends on task performance
Intrinsic motivation desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task
performance serves as its own reward
- Attractiveness of rewards varies across cultures
oDifferent cultures have different motivators
- Employees underestimate how powerful a motivator pay is to them
oFinancial incentives often have a stronger impact on motivation than
other sorts of outcomes
oMoney also conveys a sense of esteem as it signals that employees are
competent and well-regarded
oMeaning of money (=the degree to which they view money as having
symbolic, not just economic, value)
Symbolic value of money can be summarized in at least 3
dimensions: achievement (money symbolizes success); respect
(money brings respect in one’s community) and freedom
(money provides opportunity)
oMen are more likely to view money as representing achievement,
respect and freedom than are women
oEmployees with higher salaries are more likely to view money in
achievement-related terms
oYounger employees are less likely to view money in a positive light
(compared to older employees)
oDifferences in education do not appear to impact the meaning of
money
Motivational force
- According to expectancy theory, the direction of effort is dictated by 3 beliefs
(expectance (E->P), instrumentality (P-> O) and valence (V)
oTotal motivational force to perform a given action can be described
using the following formula:
Motivational force=
- The sigma indicates that instrumentalities and valences are judged with
various outcomes in mind and motivation increases as successful
performance is liked to more and more attractive outcomes
- Motivational force equals zero if any one of the three beliefs is zero
oIn other words, it doesn’t matter how confident you are, if the
performance doesn’t result in any outcomes
oSimilarly doesn’t matter how well the performance is evaluated and
rewarded if you don’t believe you can perform well
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