PHIL 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: British National Vegetation Classification, Positivism, Normative Ethics

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6 Feb 2016
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Class 2 Notes
Normative ethics:
The study of ethical action
How are we ought to act?
What are the standards right/wrong, or good or bad?
Is there a good reason why we should conform to these
standards?
Two approaches:
Consequentialism/Teleology- results/interest/ends
Deontology: Duty based
Justi$cation should come from logical reasoning/rational
grounds rather then customs and examples (conventional
morality).
Normative ethics is a practical discipline verses positive
science.
Teleological approach: The standards of right/wrong have
authority in virtue of ends/interest served by the conduct
guided by them (in life).
Examples of the end interest can be well-being and happiness.
Deontological approach: The standards of right/wrong have the
authority independently of ends/interests, based on the same
notion of duty.
How we ought to act?
Meaning of “ought”
Based on duty (we have a duty to do such and such)
according to deontological approach.
According to the teleological approach we are well
advised to do such and such.
Teleological approach (the $eld of medicine)
Deontological (the $eld of law)
Axiomatic approach:
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