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PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Erogenous Zone, Phallic Stage, Electra Complex

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

of 3
Psychoanalytic Approach (Freud)
We are governed by unconscious conflicts
2 types
- Life Instincts (libido: sexual instinct)
- Death Instincts
Structures of Personality
Structure that contains the instincts
Only structure present at birth
Unconscious it has no contact with reality
Irrational & amoral
Seeks self-indulgence and immediate gratifications
Can reduce tension in two ways:
1. Reflex activity
2. Primary process thinking (you fantasize about the object that will reduce tension)
Develops at 13 -15 months
Helps the id gain real rather than imaginary satisfaction
It is in contact with reality
Its reasonable and evaluates the situation
Strives for delay of gratification
Use secondary process thinking (realistic thinking)
Based on the Reality Principle
Develops at around 4 years old
Represents the moral aspect
Allows for self-control
Strives for perfection and tries to block gratification
Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Sexual in this sense refers to many urges for physical pleasure
Erogenous Zone: Zones that need pleasure producing stimulation to reduce tension
1. Oral Stage:
- (birth to 15 months)
- Erogenous zone is the mouth
2. Anal Stage:
- 18 months)
- Erogenous zone is the anus
- Child gets pleasure from retention and elimination of feces
3. Phallic Stage:
- (4yrs) most crucial
- Erogenous zone is the genitals
- Oedipal Complex (males):
i) Sexually attracted to mom
ii) Boy feels conflicted feelings towards dad (love, fear, hostility)
iii) Resolution: represses these conflicted emotions, identifies with dad, and dad
becomes the sex-role model.
- Electra Complex (females):
i) Sexually attracted to dad
ii) Blames mom for lack of penis
iii) Feels hostility and love towards mom
iv) Resolution: represses these conflicted emotions, identifies with mom, and mom
becomes the sex-role model.
v) Girl suffers from penis envy
4. Latency Stage:
- (5yrs puberty)
- No erogenous zone
- Child learns acceptable ways of reducing tension
5. Genital Stage:
- (puberty onward)
- Erogenous zone is the genitals
Fixation: You become “fixed” at one stage.
Regression: Going back to a previous stage.
Defence Mechanisms
Neurotic anxiety: is produced by fear that the ego will not have adequate control over the id,
and id impulses will surface.
Defence mechanisms are unconscious. They provide an indirect release of id energy. When this
energy is released neurotic anxiety is reduced.
Denial: Act as though the source of anxiety doesn’t exist.
Repression: You block from conscious awareness painful emotions.
Displacement: When you direct your feelings or actions, not to the source but to a substitute
target. (scape-goat)
Projection: Perceiving personal characteristics in others that you cannot admit in yourself.
Reaction Formation: You cover up your true unconscious feelings by actions opposite to the
way you truly feel.
Rationalization: You make up a rational argument that is acceptable to explain an event that
causes anxiety.
Atonement: When you do something that makes you feel anxious or guilty and you reduce this
by doing a good deed.
Freudian Slip
Sometimes the ego is temporarily “off-guard” and the id desires slip out, often in symbolic forms
(mispronunciations), slip of the pen or misperceptions.
Dream work defences that come into play during dreams
Dreamwork Defences
1. Dramatization: Internal conflicts are externalised in physical activity in your dreams.
2. Condensation: When you don’t have a smooth flow of thoughts or events (there are gaps)
3. Symbolization:
a) Personal symbols - related to your own experiences
b) Universal symbols - have the same meaning across dreams and are common to a given