PSYC 1010 Jan. 17, 2014
Levels (Depths) of Processing Approach: How good our long term memory is, is partly
dependent on how deeply our thoroughly we processed the information to begin with.
There are 3 levels:
Level 1: Structural encoding: Processing words according to their appearance.Avery
shallow way to process information. (E.g., Is it capital or lower case letters? Processing
words only by its structure. Doesn’t often lead to long term memory.
Level 2: Phonemic encoding: Processing the information more clearly. Thinking about
how it sounds.
Level 3: Semantic encoding: Encoding information according to its meaning. We really
have to process and think about it. Helps us to keep things in our long-term memory.
Some researchers believe there are different memory systems.
Procedural Memory System: Memory for how to do things. Can include different actions or
skills. It often becomes automatic after repetition. (E.g., riding a bicycle after some time, driving
a car after doing it for a while, typing on a keyboard).
Declarative Memory System: Memory for information or facts. Usually takes more effort.
1. Semantic Memory: General information, or things that we have over-learned.
Information we might find in an encyclopedia. Something that we have
learned over and over again. (E.g., what do people do when they are in love?
2. Episodic Memory: Memory for specific events or episodes. Usually unique,
rather than repeated, events. Information about what we have personally
experienced. (E.g., what was your first kiss like?)
Serial Position Effect: We are more likely to remember things that happen at the beginning and
the end. So, when we have a long list of words that we are required to remember, we are most
likely to recall the first and final few.
Primacy Effect: Being able to better remember things that happen in the beginning (first
impressions are the most important!) Recency Effect: Being able to remember things that happen at the end (last impressions are also
Free Recall Task:Atask where you