Acquired needs: Quasi-Needs
Ephemeral, situationally induced wants that create tense energy to engage in behaviour capable
of reducing the built up tension.
needing money at the store
a band aid after a cut
an umbrella in the rain
An acquired psychological process that grows out of one's socialization history that activates
emotional responses to a particular need relevant incentive.
Incentive that Activates Each Social Need's Emotional and Behaviour Potential
Primary Needs-Activating Incentive
Social Need- Incentive that activates each need
Achievement- Doing something well to show personal competence Affiliation- Opportunity to please others and gain their approval
Intimacy- Warm, secure relationship
Power- Having impact on others.
Need for Achievement
Desire to do well relative to a standard of excellence
Standard of Excellence
Any change to a person's competence that ends with an objective outcome of success vs. failure
win vs. lose, or right vs. wrong.
High-need Achiever vs. Low-need Achiever
Approach oriented Emotions, vs. Avoidance oriented Emotions
Differences in Choice, latency, effort, persistence, and the willingness to take personal
responsibility for successes and failures
Origins of the need for achievement
Parents' independence training, high performance aspirations, realistic, standards of excellence,
positive valuing of achievement-related pursuits, etc.
perceptions of high ability
high expectations for success
strong valuing of achievement optimistic attributional style
Achievement-related beliefs, values, and emotions all show predictable developmental patterns.
Tnedency to Achieve(Ta) Tendency to Approach Success(Ts) Tendency to Avoid Failure(Taf)
Ta= (MS*Ps*Is) - (Maf*Pf*If)
Ms: Motive to Success
Ps: Perceived Probability of Success
Is: Incentive Value of Success
Maf: Motive to Avoid Failure
Pf: Perceived probability of failure (1-Ps)
If: Negative Incentive value for failure (1-Is)
Dynamic of Action Model
Instigation Inhibition Consummation
(Ts) (Taf) Performing an activity
Approach Avoidance brings about its own cessation.
Streams of Ongoing Behaviour Streams of Behaviour people high and low in Ms and Maf
1. Latency to begin an achievement depends an motive strength. (Ms vs. Maf)
2. Persistence on an achievement task depends on motive strength. (Ms vs Maf)
3. Switching to an nonachievement task occ