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Psychology - Motivation & Emotion.docx

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PSYC 2510
Richard N Lalonde

January 9, 2013 Psychology – Lecture 13 Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion What are you motivated by? Concepts & Theories  Motives – needs, wants, desires leading to goal-directed behaviour (or away from unpleasant) o Intrinsic motivation – pursuit of activity for its own sake o Extrinsic motivation – pursuit of activity for external rewards (eg. money, fame)  Drive theories – seeking homeostasis (seeking comfort)  Incentive theories – pulled by external goals  Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success Hunger Motivation & Eating Biological Factors  Physiology of hunger Hunger and Eating: Physiology  Early view – anatomical centres o Lateral hypothalamus (on) and ventromedial hypothalamus(off) switches o Paraventricular nucleus  Contemporary view – neural circuits & hormonal regulation o Ghrelin: hormone produced in stomach that increases eating (Reduced after gastric bypass surgery) o Insulin: (increased hunger) and leptin (decreases hunger)  Glucose and digestive regulation o Glucostats monitor blood glucose levels o Is fed back into the circuitry Mnemonic: My name is Gluco and I love stats. They give me a sugar high. One day my stomach was growlin (ghrelin) and I was insulted by my hunger so I lept in my books. Genetics of weight – BMI of Twins  Identicals more similar in BMI than fraternals (raised together or apart)  > 400 genes, markers & chromosomal regions linked with human obesity phenotype (what appears); genotype – what you are genetically predisposed to have  And then there are epigenetics Set point & settling point theories  Set point o genetically set weight for an individual (pre-programmed weight) o Maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake (eg. fat cell monitoring – fat more desired in cold places for warmth) o Explains weight gain after dieting & why “appetite supressing” drugs fail in the long run  Settling point o Set point can drift to equilibrium point related to food consumption and energy use o A range in which the set point is in (eg. can only gain or lose 10-15 lbs & gain it lose/gain it back easily) o Exercise increases metabolism & lowers location in settling point Hunger Motivation: Environmental Factors  Learned preferences & habits: Exposure – when, as well as what you eat  Food-related cues: Appearance, colour, odour, effort required  Stress: Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion & overeating Obesity – Why the rapid increase? Adult obesity in Canada almost doubled from 1978 to 2005 (from 13.8% to 24.3%)  Abundance of low-cost, varied high fat meals  Habit of eating high calorie food on the run  Rise in energy saving devices (cars, remotes)  Types of leisure activities (TV & internet)  Canadians spend as much time in cars as outdoors (5% each) 90% indoors  Fast food chain increases with time Between culture differences – Philly & Paris Rozin et al.:  Portions much larger in Philadelphia o Mean portion size in restaurants: 25% larger o Mean item sizes (eg. candy bar 41% bigger) o Mean portion sizes in cookbooks  Time eating in McDonalds o Philly M = 14.4 min o Paris M = 22.2 min  30% of Americans are obese compared to 7% of French! Danger of an exclusive environmental focus on obesity  Stereotyping “fat people” o Heavy people are no more or less emotionally disturbed o Obesity is not always caused by overeating (eg. poverty – fast food is cheap) Cultural Attitudes & Weight  Cultures where food is rarer: fat is a sign of health and affluence in men, sexual desirability in women  People of all ethnicities & social classes are getting heavier  Cultural ideal for (white) women has been getting thinner  Cultural ideal for men has also changed o Muscles used to mean a working class, now muscular bodies symbolize affluence (used to show working class)  More obesity among Canadian men than women  More Canadian women currently dieting, even when their weight is in the healthy range  Regardless of actual weight, Canadian teen girls want to lose weight, while most boys want to gain weight  Cultural norms appear in the teens and persist into adulthood Culture over biology  Eating disorders in cultures emphasizing thinness  Irrational terror of being “fat” o Anorexia nervosa – sign weight loss, fear of gaining weight, body image distortion & amenorrhea in females (losing your period) o Bulimia nervosa – binge eating & compensation (purging, fasting, exercising) Sexual Motivation  Biology of desire o Hormones & sexual response different  Estrogens & androgens (eg. testosterone) are found in females & males  Testosterone promotes sexual desire in both sexes  Relationship is not simple – sexual behaviour also increases testosterone  Psychological factors usually more important than hormones in humans Orgasm & the male researcher  Freud – clitoral orgasms are “immature” & vaginal orgasms are “mature”  Kinsey – Males & females have similar orgasms but females have less sexual capacity  Masters & Johnson – women’s capacity for sexual responses surpasses men’s o Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution What motivates humans to engage in sexual activities?  Enhancement (emotional/physical)  Intimacy  Coping  Self-affirmation  Partner approval  Peer approval Motivation & sexual orientation  Bagemihl (1993) Homosexuality in more than 450 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects  In western studies 2-7% of men self-identify as gay  Proportion of lesbians is smaller  Sexual ID (who we desire) & behaviour (who we sexually engage with) are different Asexuality (no sexual attraction to either gender): About 1% The Riddle of Sexual Orientation  Factors which do not explain homosexuality o Smothering mother, Absent father, Emotional problems, Same sex play in childhood and adolescence, Parental practices, Role models, Seduction by an older adult of same sex Sexual Orientation: Genetic Links  Identical twins – higher similarity rates suggesting a genetic link Achievement Motivation Need for achievement  Learned motive to meet personal standards of success and excellence in a chosen area  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – McClelland o Projective test – stories about ambiguous pictures scored for unconscious motives – ach
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