PSYC 3480 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Radical Feminism, Engagement, Cultural Feminism

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20 Oct 2016
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PSYC 3480
October 20, 2016
CHAPTER 8: Relationships
Friendships
Friendships in adolescence
Close friendships/best friends tend to be with people of same gender
Girls’ friendships
More intimate
More self-disclosure and emotional support
Girls tend to have a few very close friends
Boys’ friendships
Less intimate
Shared group activities
Larger groups
Differences in friendship patterns related to ethnicity and social class
Friendships in adulthood
Highly valued by women and men
Women’s friendships more intimate and supportive than men’s Rose, 7
Women disclose more than men
Women express more empathy than men
Lesbian friendships
Explaining gender differences in intimacy
Socialization
Homophobia
Cross-sex friendships
Friendships in later life
Most women grow old in the company of other women (Mehta & Strough, 2009)
Friendship enhances physical and mental health
Influence of social class
Women’s friendship activities
Conversation
Assistance with transportation and errands
Lesbian friendships as extended family
Romantic Relationships
Desirable qualities in a partner
Men emphasize looks more than women
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Women emphasize status and resources
- Men prefer younger more attractive women because there is an interpretation that
physical attractiveness is correlated to physical health but its false.
- There is a cultural influence on partner selection.
- Wage disparity men are in more higher paying positions than women.
Consequences of emphasis on physical attractiveness for heterosexual women
May lead to distorted body imagewhen not attractive less likely to secure
relationship with high status men. Women then disregard themselves with the
double standard of aging and it is compounded by gender and disabilities.
Devalues women’s behavior and accomplishments
Double standard of aging-- Women are concerned that men will prefer younger
women. In general, it is easier for men to have more choice and it will be younger
mate preference. Women become too preoccupied about whether they are going to
be attractive and tries to avoid rejection. Women self -objectify and think of
themselves an entity.
Particularly negative impact for women with disabilities
- A relationship between two people that includes sexual intimacy
Three components of romantic relationships are
Emotional Intimacy
Sexual Intimacy- differs from friendship and likability
Commitment - e.g arranged marriages
Perception of sexual interest
Cues (sometimes misperceived) based on nonsexual behavior
Asking out on a date
Time spent on date
Flirting
Friendliness
Brief conversation
What problems may stem from men using these cues to perceive sexual interest?
Dating
Onset of dating
Mixed-gender groups begin to form during early adolescence
Purposes of dating
Age of first date has decreased in the U.S.
Factors related to onset of dating
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Dating scripts: Culturally developed sequence of expected events that guides an
individual’s behavior while on a date Rose & Frieze, 99
Reflect stereotype of communal female and agentic male
Heterosexual romantic relationships characterized by power imbalance
- Seem to be influenced by culturally development series of events that guides our
expectation when dating.
- Women have the tendency to present themselves more communally -- more woman
and females will be looking for that in males to actually show how male he is . a male
must present this agent role. this influences the power distribution in the relationship.
- Power imbalance distribution of power is not equal between the two partners in
heterosexual relationships.
- Evolutionary psychology theories do not support the notion that men prefer younger
females because of their beliefs that they are more fertile. it is however explained
using the Evolutionary perspectives though essentialism / differences perspectives.
- If the male and females in a relationship have more gender perspectives or if the male
is more feminist, then this defeats the power imbalances and the relationship tends to
be more stable.
- Lesbians have higher self- esteem if they have accepted their identities.
- Overall personality - vague term to have
- Women tend to report more and be more attuned to both positive and negative
feelings because they are they tend to take care of the relationship. Tend to initiate a
discussion about their negative feeling or also to define what is wrong in the
relationship.
Recent trends in dating
Partnering markets Laumann et al., 
Related to gender, age, neighborhood, culture, socioeconomic status, sexual
orientation
On-line dating sites
More older singles looking to date
Committed Relationships
Marriage
Marriage rates
Continue to be high
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