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York University
PSYC 4080
Hernan Humana

Chapter 8 Memory memorycognitive process of encoding storing and retrieving informationencodingprocess by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used by brains memory system storageprocess of maintaining information in memoryretrievalactive process of locating and using stored informationliteralphysiological changes that occur when something is learnedmetaphoricalconceptual information processing models of memorylearningtendency for behaviour to change as result of experience with performance reflects brains plasticity three forms of memory sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memorysensory memorymemory in which representations of physical features of stimulus are stored for very brief duration held long enough to become part of shortterm memory no analysis takes place but longer than perceptionshortterm memoryimmediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived limited in capacity 7or2 chunks of information and duration less than 20 secondslongterm memorymemory in which information is represented on permanent or nearpermanent basis durable no limitsStandingshowed people 10000 colour slides and found they could recognize them weeks later occurs due to physical changes that take place in brain modal model of memorygeneral conception of memory systemSensory Memorynot awareonly when presented briefly have sensory memory for every modality2 main iconic visual and echoic auditory Iconic Memoryiconic memorysensory memory that holds brief visual image of scene that has just been perceived also known as visible persistenceSperlingpresented visual images through tachistoscope at rate of 9 letters on screen for 50 millisecondson average person could remember 4 or 5 but insisted that for brief time could see more but images faded to fast to see allalso used partial report procedure to determine whether capacity of iconic memory accounted for this limitationasked people to name letters in only one horizontal row indicated by a tone after letters disappeared able to repeat letters with perfect accuracyiconic memory had capacity for all 9 if delay of tone was longer than 1 second people could onyl relay 50 could not recall all 9 because had faded from memory Echoic Memoryechoic memorysensory memory for sounds that have just been perceivednecessary for comprehending sound particularly those that constitute speechcannot identify word until we have heard whole sound so accoustical information must be stored temporarliy until all sounds have been receivedevidence from partial reporting shows that it lasts less than 4 seconds
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