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Boston College
HIST 4150
Joseph Burdo

History of Islam- March 13, 2013 I. The World ofAl-Ghazali a. Scholar living and working under the Seljuqs, (converts to Islam who got powerful- the defenders of Sunni Islam) b. Destroyed the Byzantine border and took Mecca and Medina from Shia Fatimids c. Coined the term Sultan- NizamAl-Mulk wrote the book of Politics, which defines what exactly the Sultan is (subservient to only the Caliph and God-they would be approved by the Caliph). Sultans are responsible for making sure Islamic values are upheld on their lands. Nizam tried to “save” the dying Caliphate from the Seljuqs by this Sultan idea. d. Iqta- “tax farming/feudal system” a way for the Sultan/warlords (Atabegs) to pay the army which allowed the lords to be mostly autonomous e. Nizamiyya- schools (madrassa) founded by Nizam Al-Mulk, in which one of these schools, Al-Ghazali taught. Learning based on coping books and notes down word for word. (Period of the Sunni Synthesis) f. Al-Ghazali- wrote an autobiography of his thought process.Aphilosopher who up and left teaching one day and traveled as a Sufi. In book he talks about his Sufist journey. Looks at the different types of teaching/learning/knowing God: i. Authoritative Teaching- Obeying everything a teacher tells you, blindly follow instruction (Ishmilis and their Imams). Only know God to the point which your teacher did ii. Philosophy- better, but uses only basic logic, which can lead you astray from Islamic truth. Does not lead you to moral conclusions. iii. Kalam Theology- You end up with watered down philosophy and theology. Abit intellectually dishonest, bending things to make them fit. iv. Sufism- knowing God through your own experience, feeling, and emotion. g. Sufism- sufi orders organized around the Shaykh and disciple relationship. Student pledged full obedience to teacher. Played a large role into bringing the Turks into Islam. Shaykhs were the leaders of the Seljuqs (charismatic type of leadership). i. Tariqa II. The First Crusade 1096-1099- Byzantine Emperor asked pope for mercenaries to defeat the Seljuqs. Pope Urban II turns this outward and decides to try and retake the Middle East. Penitence movements were very common at this time so the pope took those people and that feeling and put it towards the crusade a. Peter the Hermit and “the people’s Crusade”- Peter was a popular preacher who went around from town to town exclaiming that the end of the world was near and in order to assure one’s place with God, you should go on this military crusade. Sending ordinary townsfolk to the crusade. People really felt this war would purify them. Peter and his followers were slaughtered at war. b. First Crusade was a bloody success with crusaders establishing an independent kingdom in Jerusalem. Byzantines never got the conquered lands. Bring castle culture to the Middle East. III. The Third Crusade (1189-1192) a. Atabeg Zengi- Suboordinate nobels in Seljuq heiarchy who control the taxes (IQTA). This guy started to swallow up his neighboring atabegs. These Zengids wanted to get rid of the Fatimids and retake lands lost in the crusades. Zengi begins to attack crusader states. Salah Al-Din- Zengi general in army who was successful in conquering Egypt. He was the first real ruler in the Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt. (Conquered Fatimids. The turned to crusader states and retook Jerusalem. Uses the concept of Jihad. Cordial with everyone including crusaders, he was just trying to take land- he was very merciful. Horns of Hattin (two cliffs outside Jerusalem) al-Din attacked Jerusalem but then retreated and the crusaders followed. Out in the dessert, Din had stopped up all the wells so his army had water and the crusaders did not. IV. Long Term Effects a. Fourth Crusade (1200-1204) i. Never made it to the holy land attacked Byzantine Constantinople instead ii. Italian City-States March 18, 2013 I. Rule #1 Don’t Piss Off the Khan a. Chinghiz Khan (1167-1227)- “Gangus” or Temujin- He and his brothers were raised by their mother and became outcasts from other Mongol tribes. Temujin was to get vengeance for those who killed his father. Rival tribes stole his wife, and Khan defeats the tribe. Conquered a large amount of land inAsia, brought together all the different Mongol tribes and he also reorganized the tribes themselves. i. 1206 The Great Quriltay- The great meeting in which the leaders of the other Mongol Tribes acknowledge Chinghiz Khan as leader. This is where his name changed from Temujin to Changhiz. b. Conquered others by fear: when a city opposed him, he obliterated the town so other towns would submit. c. The Khan’s main ambition was really to conquer China. China was politically fragmented at this time and ruled by two Song Dynasties. Khan wasn’t initially interested in the Islamic middle east but things start to change because of Khwarazmshah (the Turkish ruler at the border of the Empire). He pissed off the Khan by arresting and humiliating a Mongol merchant caravan. Also kills the Khan’s messenger. d. At the Khan’s death, the Empire is split along his four sons (See Figure) II. The Mongol Conquests a. The Golden Horde conquered China b. Hulegu is who initiated the Conquests in Islamic areas (Again someone broke rule number 1). Conquered Baghdad i. 1258- The Sack of Baghdad: Killed the lastAbbassid Caliph by having horses trample him. END OF THE CALIPHATE!!! ii. Ibn Taymiyya-Argues that the Ulama now have the right to call people to jihad (since there is no longer a caliph) c. Mongols then head to conquer Egypt at the battle of ‘Ayn Jalut i. Mumluks lead Egypt defense and defeat the Mongol army ii. Egypt border held d. Rum Seljuqs immediately surrendered inAnatolia III. The “Pax Mongolia” a. After conquests, Mongol Empire had a period of no warfare b. Merchants and travelers could travel from one end of the empire to the other with very little trouble i. Allows Marco Polo to travel and trade networks to set up ii. William of Rubruck brought a letter from the pope in Germany to Mongol court. He writes about the other people (from all overAsia) at the court. c. Mongols were really religiously tolerant d. Set up one of the most effective postal system of the time i. Pony Express-Type System Yasa- legal system like sharia; went over how to treat prisoners, dietary laws, how you ruled the empire, how you are supposed to prepare food March 20, 2013 History of Islam Notes I. Mongol Empire The Turks won out in the Mongol invasion because then Turks started to get positions of power within the tribes. When Chinghiz Khan died his lands were split amongst his four sons: a. Golden Horde- Area portioned to the Eldest son, he wanted to expand into Europe. Fragmented very quickly into many many small parts all recognized the family relationships between one another but that didn’t always lead into allieship. i. Uzbek Horde- Islam convert ruler. Converted when a sufi leader came and performed miracles in front of Uzbeck (boiling water). ii. Muscuvy Russia (Romanov) b. Ilkhans- Descendants of Hulegu (Sacked Baghdad in 1258). This territory held on to unity the longest. “Second in Command” Khan which was located mainly in Iran. Assimilate to Persian and Turkish culture--used Persian as their language. Main enemy were the mamluks. They go through a lot of different religions but finally settle on Islam. i. Safivids- form the basis of modern Iran c. Great Horde (Yuan Dynasty  China): The great Khanate in the East, which was (symbolically) the “leader” state. Khanate sets up a new capital, Beijing. Mongol goal was not to turn everybody into Mongols; when they conquered an area, They “assimilated down/to” the conquered peoples and adopt their customs and dress (this is different from the Muslim conquests). d. Chaghatay Khanate- Third son of Chinghiz Khan- Fragment quickly i. Timurids- fragment of this Khanate formed by Timur (The Lame) who wanted to re-combine the entire Mongol empire. He begins to conquer some of his neighbors, invades the Ilkhanate, Russia, and the Ottoman Anatolia. Timur was the most successful conqueror of this era. March 23, 2013 I. Travel- Traveled because they had the luxury to, their jobs permitted them to be able to afford (time and money) to go on the hajj a. Scholars- the hajj traveling was the biggest part of their travels. Met with other scholars in Mecca and exchanged ideas and writings and learnings. Then after the hajj they would stay in the center of the Islamic world to either meet other important scholars or do more studies. i. Rihla Fi TalabAl-ilm – journey to knowledge. Included with the hajj but not restricted to the hajj b. Merchants- traveled in order to trade luxury goods from other parts of the world (i.e the silk road). i. Trans-Asia trade routes ii. Sahara trade routes iii. Mediterranean trade routes iv. Indian Ocean trade routes*** most stable and lucrative*** Swahili emerges as a trading language (“pigeon language”: elements of all the different languages). Trading mineral wealth, goods, and slaves c. Sufis- Traveled to preach their message. Once a student became a master, he would go travel to start another branch of the order somewhere else. Very often they would follow the merchants. Bengal jungles for Sufi retreats were set up to retreat and preach to the hunter and gatherers living outside the jungles. Set up farms for their
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