The Human Soul ▯ Rational Part ▯ Contemplation (Theoretical Reason) and Deliberation (Practical
NonRational Part ▯ Responsive to Reason (Emotive Part) and Not Responsive to Reason
2 Types of Rational Virtues:
Virtues of the Intellect
Sophia = Theoretical Wisdom
Applies to the theoretical part of the rational part
Phronesis = Practical Wisdom
Applies to the practical part of the rational part
Virtue of Character (Moral Virtue)
Applies to the emotive part of the nonrational part capable of following reason.
A certain state of character
Character = the way one characteristically responds to one’s experiences
A habit of feeling
A tendency to have proper emotional reactions to situations
A mean between extreme states, which are vices
Don’t desire anything too much or too little
Don’t react too strongly or not strongly enough
Have the proper emotional reaction, and act accordingly
Realize which extreme you tend towards, and balance yourself
Requires intellectual virtue of intelligence
Intelligence = ability to judge what is right and wrong to do in a given situation
A developed capacity of character Acquired by emotional upbringing and training
In childhood, must develop the proper habits
This will train the emotions to react properly
Moral virtue is fully developed only when it is combined with practical wisdom
The truly virtuous person does not contend with internal pressures to act otherwise.
He does not long to do something that he regards as shameful.
He is not distressed at having to give up a pleasure that he realizes he should forego.
Virtue = a complex set of rational, emotional and social skills.